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TT he author, who writes under the pen-name Harun

Yahya, was born in Ankara in 1956. He studied arts at

Istanbul's Mimar Sinan University and philosophy at Istanbul

University. Since the 1980s, the author has published many

books on political, faith-related and scientific issues. His

main focus has been the refutation of Darwinism and

materialism, two modern myths presented under a scientific guise. Some of the books

of the author have been translated into more than 20 languages and published in the

countries concerned. Harun Yahya's books appeal to all people, Muslims and non-

Muslims alike, regardless of their age, race, and nationality, as they center around one

goal: to open the readers' mind by encouraging them to think about some critical

issues such as the existence of God and His unity, and to display the decrepit

foundations and perverted works of godless systems.


For some people the theory of evolution or Darwinism has only scientific

connotations, with seemingly no direct implication in their daily lives. This is, of

course, a common misunderstanding. Far beyond just being an issue within the

framework of the biological sciences, the theory of evolution constitutes the

underpinning of a deceptive philosophy that has held sway over a large number of

people: Materialism.

Materialist philosophy, which accepts only the existence of matter and

presupposes man to be "a heap of matter", asserts that he is no more than an

animal, with "conflict" the sole rule of his existence. Traces of this philosophy,

which has a lot to answer as regards man-made disasters of the last two centuries,

can be found in every ideology that perceives differences among people as a

"reason for conflict".

The theory of evolution, or Darwinism, comes in handy at this point by

completing the jigsaw puzzle. It provides the myth that materialism is a scientific


However, that basis is rotten. Modern scientific discoveries reveal over and

over again that the popular belief associating Darwinism with science is false.

Scientific evidence refutes Darwinism comprehensively and reveals that the origin

of our existence is not evolution but intelligent design, i.e., creation. God has

created the universe, all living things and man.


In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful


About The Author

The author, who writes under the pen-name HARUN YAHYA, was bornin Ankara in 1956. Having completed his primary and secondary educa-tion in Ankara, he then studied arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan Universityand philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, the author has pub-lished many books on political, faith-related and scientific issues. HarunYahya is well-known as an author who has written very important worksdisclosing the imposture of evolutionists, the invalidity of their claims andthe dark liaisons between Darwinism and bloody ideologies such as fas-cism and communism. His pen-name is made up of the names "Harun" (Aaron) and "Yahya"(John), in memory of the two esteemed prophets who fought against lackof faith. The Prophet's seal on the cover of the books is symbolic and islinked to the their contents. It represents the Qur'an (the final scripture)and the Prophet Muhammad, the last of the prophets. Under the guidanceof the Qur'an and sunnah, the author makes it his purpose to disproveeach one of the fundamental tenets of godless ideologies and to have the"last word", so as to completely silence the objections raised against reli-gion. The seal of the final Prophet, who attained ultimate wisdom andmoral perfection, is used as a sign of his intention of saying this last word. All author’s works center around one goal: to convey the Qur’an’s messageto people, encourage them to think about basic faith-related issues (such asthe existence of God, His unity and the Hereafter), and to expose the fee-ble foundations and perverted ideologies of godless systems. Harun Yahya enjoys a wide readership in many countries, from India toAmerica, England to Indonesia, Poland to Bosnia, and Spain to Brazil.Some of his books are available in English, French, German, Spanish, Ital-ian, Portuguese, Urdu, Arabic, Albanian, Russian, Serbo-Croat (Bosnian),Polish, Malay, Uygur Turkish, and Indonesian, and they are enjoyed byreaders worldwide. Greatly appreciated all around the world, these works have been instru-mental in many people recovering their faith in God and in many othersgaining a deeper insight into their faith. The wisdom, and the sincere andeasy-to-understand style gives these books a distinct touch which directlyeffects any one who reads or studies them. Immune to objections, theseworks are characterized by their features of rapid effectiveness, definite re-sults and irrefutability. It is unlikely that those who read these books and


give serious thought to them can any longer sincerely advocate the mate-rialistic philosophy, atheism or any other perverted ideology or philoso-phy. Even if they continue to do so, it will be only a sentimental insistencesince these books refuted such ideologies from their very foundations. Allcontemporary movements of denial are now ideologically defeated,thanks to the collection of books written by Harun Yahya. There is no doubt that these features result from the wisdom and lucidityof the Qur'an. The author modestly intends to serve as a means in human-ity's search for God's right path. No material gain is sought in the publica-tion of these works.Considering these facts, those who encourage people to read these books,which open the "eyes" of the heart and guide them to become more de-voted servants of God, render an invaluable service. Meanwhile, it would just be a waste of time and energy to propagate otherbooks which create confusion in peoples' minds, lead man into ideologicalchaos, and which, clearly have no strong and precise effects in removingthe doubts in peoples' hearts, as also verified from previous experience. Itis apparent that it is impossible for books devised to emphasize the au-thor's literary power rather than the noble goal of saving people from lossof faith, to have such a great effect. Those who doubt this can readily seethat the sole aim of Harun Yahya's books is to overcome disbelief and todisseminate the moral values of the Qur'an. The success and impact of thisservice are manifest in readers’ conviction. One point should be kept in mind: The main reason for the continuing cru-elty, conflict, and all the ordeals the majority of people undergo is the ide-ological prevalence of disbelief. This state can only be ended with theideological defeat of disbelief and by conveying the wonders of creationand Qur'anic morality so that people can live by it. Considering the stateof the world today, which leads people into the downward spiral of vio-lence, corruption and conflict, it is clear that this service has to be providedmore speedily and effectively. Otherwise, it may be too late. It is no exaggeration to say that the collection of books by Harun Yahyahave assumed this leading role. By the will of God, these books will be ameans through which people in the 21st century will attain the peace, jus-tice and happiness promised in the Qur'an.



In all the books by the author, faith-related issues are explained in thelight of Qur'anic verses, and people are invited to learn God's words andto live by them. All the subjects that concern God's verses are explainedin such a way as to leave no room for doubt or question marks in thereader's mind. The sincere, plain and fluent style employed ensures thateveryone of every age and from every social group can easily under-stand the books. This effective and lucid narrative makes it possible toread them in a single sitting. Even those who rigorously reject spiritual-ity are influenced by the facts recounted in these books and cannot re-fute the truthfulness of their contents.

This book and all the other works by Harun Yahya can be read individ-ually or discussed in a group. Those readers who are willing to profitfrom the books will find discussion very useful in that they will be ableto relate their own reflections and experiences to one another.

In addition, it is a great service to the religion to contribute to the pre-sentation and circulation of these books, which are written solely for thegood pleasure of God. All the books of the author are extremely con-vincing, so, for those who want to communicate the religion to otherpeople, one of the most effective methods is to encourage them to readthese books.

It is hoped that the reader will take time to look through the review ofother books on the final pages of the book, and appreciate the richsource of material on faith-related issues, which are very useful and apleasure to read.

In them, one will not find, as in some other books, the personal views ofthe author, explanations based on dubious sources, styles unobservantof the respect and reverence due to sacred subjects, or hopeless, doubt-creating, and pessimistic accounts that create deviations in the heart.





Copyright© Harun Yahya 1420 AH / 1999CE

First published by Vural Yayincilik, Istanbul, Turkey in April 1997

First English Edition published in July 1999

Published by:

Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.

1 Wynne Road

London SW9 OBB

United Kingdom

Website: http://www.taha.co.uk

E-mail: [emailprotected]

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any methods,

electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording

or otherwise without the prior permission of the publishers.

By Harun Yahya

Translated by: Mustapha Ahmad

A Catalog Record of this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 1-897940-97-1

Printed and bound by:

Kelebek Matbaacilik

w w w . h a r u n y a h y a . c o mw w w . e v o l u t i o n d e c e i t . c o m




The Scientific Collapse ofDarwinism and Its

Ideological Background


Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.1 Wynne Road London SW9 OBB

United Kingdom

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SPECIAL PREFACE: The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism:

Darwinism and Materialism .................................14

Introduction ................................................................................................14

The Darwinist Lie: 'Life is conflict'..............................................................14

Darwin's Source of Inspiration: Malthus's Theory of Ruthlessness...........15

What 'The Law of the Jungle' Led to: Fascism .........................................16

The Bloody Alliance: Darwinism and Communism....................................17

Darwinism and Terrorism...........................................................................19


Islam is a Religion of Peace and Well-Being ............................................20

God Condemns Mischief ...........................................................................21

Islam Defends Tolerance and Freedom of Speech ...................................21

God Has Made the Killing of Innocent People Unlawful ...........................22

God Commands Believers to be Compassionate and Merciful.................23

God Has Commanded Tolerance and Forgiveness ..................................23

Conclusion .................................................................................................24


INTRODUCTION: Why the Theory of Evolution?.....................................27

FOREWORD: The Greatest Miracle of Our Times: Belief in the

Evolution Deceit ....................................................................30

CHAPTER 1: To Be Freed FromPrejudice ................................................34

Blind Materialism .......................................................................................36

Mass Evolutionist Indoctrination ................................................................38

CHAPTER 2: A Brief History of the Theory..............................................41

Darwin's Imagination .................................................................................42

Darwin's Racism ........................................................................................44

The Desperate Efforts of Neo-Darwinism..................................................45

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Trial and Error: Punctuated Equilibrium.....................................................46

The Primitive Level of Science in Darwin's Time ......................................47

CHAPTER 3: Imaginary Mechanisms of Evolution..................................50

Natural Selection .......................................................................................50

"Industrial Melanism" .................................................................................51

Can Natural Selection Explain Complexity?..............................................53

Mutations ...................................................................................................53

CHAPTER 4: The Fossil Record Refutes Evolution ................................58

Life Emerged on Earth Suddenly and in Complex Forms.........................61

Molecular Comparisons Deepen Evolution's Cambrian Impasse .............64

CHAPTER 5: Tale of Transition from Water to Land ...............................65

Why Transition From Water to Land is Impossible....................................67

CHAPTER 6: Origin of Birds and Mammals.............................................69

Another Alleged Transitional Form: Archæopteryx ....................................70

Speculations of Evolutionists: The Teeth and Claws of Archæopteryx .....72

Archæopteryx and Other Ancient Bird Fossils...........................................73

The Design of the Bird Feathers ...............................................................74

The Imaginary Bird-Dinosaur Link .............................................................76

What is the Origin of Flies? .......................................................................77

The Origin of Mammals .............................................................................78

The Myth of Horse Evolution .....................................................................80

CHAPTER 7: Deceptive Fossil Interpretations ........................................81

CHAPTER 8: Evolution Forgeries .............................................................84

Piltdown Man: An Orangutan Jaw and a Human Skull! ............................84

Nebraska Man: A Pig's Tooth.....................................................................86

Ota Benga: The African In The Cage ........................................................87

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CHAPTER 9: The Scenario of Human Evolution .....................................89

The Imaginary Family Tree of Man............................................................90

Australopithecus: An Ape Species.............................................................92

hom*o Habilis: The Ape that was Presented as Human ............................93

hom*o Rudolfensis: The Face Wrongly Joined ..........................................98

hom*o Erectus and Thereafter: Human Beings .......................................100

hom*o Erectus: An Ancient Human Race.................................................101

Neanderthals ...........................................................................................104

hom*o Sapiens Archaic, hom*o Heilderbergensis and Cro-Magnon Man 105

Species Living in the Same Age as Their Ancestors...............................107

The Secret History of hom*o Sapiens ......................................................108

A Hut 1.7 Million Years Old ......................................................................110

Footprints of Modern Man, 3.6 Million Years Old! ...................................110

The Bipedalism Impasse of Evolution......................................................112

Evolution: An Unscientific Faith ...............................................................113

CHAPTER 10: The Molecular Impasse of Evolution..............................116

The Tale of the "Cell Produced by Chance" ............................................116

Confessions from Evolutionists................................................................118

The Miracle in the Cell and the End of Evolution ....................................119

Proteins Challenge Chance.....................................................................121

Left-handed Proteins ...............................................................................125

Correct Bond is Vital ................................................................................127

Zero Probability........................................................................................127

Is There a Trial and Error Mechanism in Nature? ...................................128

The Probability of a Protein Being Formed by Chance is Zero...............129

The Evolutionary Fuss About the Origin of Life.......................................131

Miller's Experiment ..................................................................................133

Miller's Experiment was Nothing but Make-believe.................................133

Latest Evolutionist Sources Dispute Miller's Experiment ........................135

Primordial World Atmosphere and Proteins.............................................137

Protein Synthesis is not Possible in Water..............................................138

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Another Desperate Effort: Fox's Experiment ...........................................138

Inanimate Matter Cannot Generate Life ..................................................140

The Miraculous Molecule: DNA...............................................................141

Can DNA Come into Being by Chance? .................................................142

Another Evolutionist Vain Attempt: "The RNA World"..............................145

Confessions From Evolutionists ..............................................................146

Life is a Concept Beyond Mere Heaps of Molecules ..............................148

CHAPTER 11: Thermodynamics Falsifies Evolution.............................150

The Myth of the "Open System" ..............................................................152

The Myth of the "Self Organization of Matter".........................................153

CHAPTER 12: Design and Coincidence .................................................152

Darwinian Formula!..................................................................................158

Technology In The Eye and The Ear .......................................................159

The Theory of Evolution is the Most Potent Spell in the World...............162

CHAPTER 13: Evolutionist Claims and the Facts .................................165

Variations and Species ............................................................................165

Antibiotic Resistance and DDT Immunity are not Evidence for Evolution ................................................................167

The Fallacy of Vestigial Organs...............................................................170

The Myth of hom*ology ............................................................................172

Similar Organs in Entirely Different Living Species .................................173

The Genetic and Embryological Impasse of hom*ology ..........................174

Invalidity of the Claim of Molecular hom*ology ........................................175

The Myth of Embryological Recapitulation ..............................................178

CHAPTER 14: The Theory of Evolution: A Materialistic Liability ........180

Materialist Confessions............................................................................182

The Death of Materialism ........................................................................185

Materialists, False Religion and True Religion ........................................186

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CHAPTER 15: Media: Fertile Ground for Evolution ..............................188

Wrapped-up Lies .....................................................................................190

CHAPTER 16: Conclusion: Evolution Is a Deceit..................................192

The Theory of Evolution has Collapsed ..................................................192

Evolution Can Not Be Verified in the Future Either .................................193

The Biggest Obstacle to Evolution: Soul .................................................193

God Creates According to His Will ..........................................................194

CHAPTER 17: The Fact of Creation ........................................................196

Honey Bees and the Architectural Wonders of Honeycombs .................196

Amazing Architects: Termites...................................................................198

The Woodpecker .....................................................................................198

The Sonar System of Bats ......................................................................199


The Design in The Gnat ..........................................................................200

Hunting Birds with Keen Eyesight ...........................................................201

The Thread of the Spider.........................................................................201

Hibernating Animals.................................................................................202

Electrical Fish ..........................................................................................203

An Intelligent Plan on Animals: Camouflage ...........................................203


Different Vision Systems..........................................................................205

Special Freezing System.........................................................................206

Albatrosses ..............................................................................................207

An Arduous Migration ..............................................................................207


Hunting Ability in Constant Position.........................................................209

The Design In Bird Feathers ...................................................................209

Basilisk: The Expert of Walking on Water ...............................................210


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CHAPTER 18: The Real Essence of Matter ............................................215

The World Of Electrical Signals...............................................................216

How Do We See, Hear, And Taste? ........................................................217

"The External World" Inside Our Brain ....................................................222

Is The Existence Of The "External World" Indispensable? .....................225

Who Is The Perceiver? ............................................................................226

The Real Absolute Being .........................................................................228

Everything That You Possess Is Intrinsically Illusory...............................231

Logical Deficiencies Of The Materialists..................................................235

The Example Of Dreams .........................................................................236

The Example Of Connecting The Nerves In Parallel ..............................237

The Formation Of Perceptions In The Brain Is Not Philosophy But Scientific Fact .................................................................239

The Great Fear Of The Materialists.........................................................240

Materialists Have Fallen Into The Biggest Trap In History ......................243

Conclusion ...............................................................................................246

CHAPTER 19: Relativity of Time and the Reality of Fate .....................249

The Perception Of Time...........................................................................249

The Scientific Explanation Of Timelessness ...........................................250

Relativity In The Qur'an ...........................................................................254


The Worry Of The Materialists.................................................................258

The Gain Of Believers .............................................................................259

CHAPTER 20: SRF Conferences:

Activities for Informing the Public About Evolution ..................................261


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Most people think the theory of evolution was first proposed byCharles Darwin, and rests on scientific evidence, observations and experi-ments. However, the truth is that Darwin was not its originator, and nei-ther does the theory rest on scientific proof. The theory consists of anadaptation to nature of the ancient dogma of materialist philosophy. Al-though it is not backed up by scientific discoveries, the theory is blindlysupported in the name of materialist philosophy.

This fanaticism has resulted in all kinds of disasters. Together withthe spread of Darwinism and the materialist philosophy it supports, theanswer to the question "What is a human being?" has changed. People whoused to answer: "God creates human beings and they have to live accord-ing to the beautiful morality He teaches", have now begun to think that"Man came into being by chance, and is an animal who developed bymeans of the fight for survival." There is a heavy price to pay for this greatdeception. Violent ideologies such as racism, fascism and communism,and many other barbaric world views based on conflict have all drawnstrength from this deception.

This article will examine the disaster Darwinism has visited on theworld and reveal its connection with terrorism, one of the most importantglobal problems of our time.

The Darwinist Lie: 'Life is conflict'

Darwin set out with one basic premise when developing his theory:"The development of living things depends on the fight for survival.The strong win the struggle. The weak are condemned to defeat andoblivion."

The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism:

Darwinism and Materialism


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The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism: Darwinism and Materialism

According to Darwin, there is a ruthless struggle for survival and aneternal conflict in nature. The strong always overcome the weak, and thisenables development to take place. The subtitle he gave to his book TheOrigin of Species, "The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or thePreservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life", encapsulates thatview.

Furthermore, Darwin proposed that the 'fight for survival' also ap-plied between human racial groups. According to that fantastical claim,'favoured races' were victorious in the struggle. Favoured races, in Dar-win's view, were white Europeans. African or Asian races had lagged be-hind in the struggle for survival. Darwin went further, and suggested thatthese races would soon lose the "struggle for survival" entirely, and thusdisappear:

At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, thecivilised races of man will almost certainly exterminate, and replace the sav-age races throughout the world. At the same time the anthropomorphousapes… will no doubt be exterminated. The break between man and his near-est allies will then be wider, for it will intervene between man in a morecivilised state, as we may hope, even than the Caucasian, and some ape aslow as a baboon, instead of as now between the negro or Australian andthe gorilla.1

The Indian anthropologist Lalita Vidyarthi explains how Darwin'stheory of evolution imposed racism on the social sciences:

His (Darwin's) theory of the survival of the fittest was warmly welcomed bythe social scientists of the day, and they believed mankind had achieved var-ious levels of evolution culminating in the white man's civilization. By thesecond half of the nineteenth century racism was accepted as fact by the vastmajority of Western scientists.2

Darwin's Source of Inspiration:Malthus's Theory of Ruthlessness

Darwin's source of inspiration on this subject was the British econo-mist Thomas Malthus's book An Essay on the Principle of Population. Left totheir own devices, Malthus calculated that the human population in-creased rapidly. In his view, the main influences that kept populationsunder control were disasters such as war, famine and disease. In short, ac-


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cording to this brutal claim, some people had to die for others to live.Existence came to mean "permanent war."

In the 19th century, Malthus's ideas were widely accepted. Europeanupper class intellectuals in particular supported his cruel ideas. In the ar-ticle "The Scientific Background of the Nazi 'Race Purification' Pro-gramme", the importance 19th century Europe attached to Malthus's viewson population is described in this way:

In the opening half of the nineteenth century, throughout Europe, membersof the ruling classes gathered to discuss the newly discovered "Populationproblem" and to devise ways of implementing the Malthusian mandate, toincrease the mortality rate of the poor: "Instead of recommending cleanli-ness to the poor, we should encourage contrary habits. In our towns weshould make the streets narrower, crowd more people into the houses, andcourt the return of the plague. In the country we should build our villagesnear stagnant pools, and particularly encourage settlements in all marshyand unwholesome situations," and so forth and so on.3

As a result of this cruel policy, the weak, and those who lost the strug-gle for survival would be eliminated, and as a result the rapid rise in pop-ulation would be balanced out. This so-called "oppression of the poor"policy was actually carried out in 19th century Britain. An industrial orderwas set up in which children of eight and nine were made to work sixteenhours a day in the coal mines and thousands died from the terrible condi-tions. The "struggle for survival" demanded by Malthus's theory led tomillions of Britons leading lives full of suffering.

Influenced by these ideas, Darwin applied this concept of conflict toall of nature, and proposed that the strong and the fittest emerged victori-ous from this war of existence. Moreover, he claimed that the so-calledstruggle for survival was a justified and unchangeable law of nature. Onthe other hand, he invited people to abandon their religious beliefs bydenying the Creation, and thus undermined at all ethical values that mightprove to be obstacles to the ruthlessness of the "struggle for survival."

Humanity has paid a heavy price in the 20th century for the dissemi-nation of these callous views which lead people to acts of ruthlessness andcruelty.

What 'The Law of the Jungle' Led to: Fascism

As Darwinism fed racism in the 19th century, it formed the basis of an


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The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism: Darwinism and Materialism

ideology that would develop and drown the world in blood in the 20thcentury: Nazism.

A strong Darwinist influence can be seen in Nazi ideologues. Whenone examines this theory, which was given shape by Adolf Hitler and Al-fred Rosenberg, one comes across such concepts as "natural selection", "se-lective mating", and "the struggle for survival between the races", whichare repeated dozens of time in the works of Darwin. When calling his bookMein Kampf (My Struggle), Hitler was inspired by the Darwinist strugglefor survival and the principle that victory went to the fittest. He particu-larly talks about the struggle between the races:

History would culminate in a new millennial empire of unparalleled splen-dour, based on a new racial hierarchy ordained by nature herself.4

In the 1933 Nuremberg party rally, Hitler proclaimed that "a higherrace subjects to itself a lower race… a right which we see in nature andwhich can be regarded as the sole conceivable right".

That the Nazis were influenced by Darwinism is a fact that almost allhistorians who are expert in the matter accept. The historian Hickman de-scribes Darwinism's influence on Hitler as follows:

(Hitler) was a firm believer and preacher of evolution. Whatever the deeper,profound, complexities of his psychosis, it is certain that [the concept ofstruggle was important because]… his book, Mein Kampf, clearly set forth anumber of evolutionary ideas, particularly those emphasizing struggle, sur-vival of the fittest and the extermination of the weak to produce a better so-ciety.5

Hitler, who emerged with these views, dragged the world to violencethat had never before been seen. Many ethnic and political groups, and es-pecially the Jews, were exposed to terrible cruelty and slaughter in theNazi concentration camps. World War II, which began with the Nazi inva-sion, cost 55 million lives. What lay behind the greatest tragedy in worldhistory was Darwinism's concept of the "struggle for survival."

The Bloody Alliance: Darwinism and Communism

While fascists are found on the right wing of Social Darwinism, theleft wing is occupied by communists. Communists have always beenamong the fiercest defenders of Darwin's theory.

This relationship between Darwinism and communism goes right


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back to the founders of both these "isms". Marx and Engels, the foundersof communism, read Darwin's The Origin of Species as soon as it came out,and were amazed at its 'dialectical materialist' attitude. The correspon-dence between Marx and Engels showed that they saw Darwin's theory as"containing the basis in natural history for communism". In his book TheDialectics of Nature, which he wrote under the influence of Darwin, Engelswas full of praise for Darwin, and tried to make his own contribution tothe theory in the chapter "The Part Played by Labour in the Transition fromApe to Man".

Russian communists who followed in the footsteps of Marx and En-gels, such as Plekhanov, Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin, all agreed with Dar-win's theory of evolution. Plekhanov, who is seen as the founder ofRussian communism, regarded marxism as "Darwinism in its applicationto social science".6

Trotsky said, "Darwin's discovery is the highest triumph of the di-alectic in the whole field of organic matter." 7

'Darwinist education' had a major role in the formation of communistcadres. For instance, historians note the fact that Stalin was religious inhis youth, but became an atheist primarily because of Darwin's books.8

Mao, who established communist rule in China and killed millions ofpeople, openly stated that "Chinese socialism is founded upon Darwinand the theory of evolution." 9

The Harvard University historian James Reeve Pusey goes into greatdetail regarding Darwinism's effect on Mao and Chinese communism inhis research book China and Charles Darwin.10

In short, there is an unbreakable link between the theory of evolutionand communism. The theory claims that living things are the product ofchance, and provides a so-called scientific support for atheism. Commu-nism, an atheist ideology, is for that reason firmly tied to Darwinism.Moreover, the theory of evolution proposes that development in nature ispossible thanks to conflict (in other words "the struggle for survival") andsupports the concept of "dialectics" which is fundamental to communism.

If we think of the communist concept of "dialectical conflict", whichkilled some 120 million people during the 20th century, as a "killing ma-chine" then we can better understand the dimensions of the disaster thatDarwinism visited on the planet.


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The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism: Darwinism and Materialism

Darwinism and Terrorism

As we have so far seen, Darwinism is at the root of various ideologiesof violence that have spelled disaster to mankind in the 20th century. Thefundamental concept behind this understanding and method is "fightingwhoever is not one of us."

We can explain this in the following way: There are different beliefs,worldviews and philosophies in the world. It is very natural that all thesediverse ideas have traits opposing one another. However, these differentstances can look at each other in one of two ways:

1) They can respect the existence of those who are not like them andtry to establish dialogue with them, employing a humane method. Indeed,this method conforms with the morality of the Qur'an.

2) They can choose to fight others, and to try to secure an advantageby damaging them, in other words, to behave like a wild animal. This is amethod employed by materialism, that is, irreligion.

The horror we call terrorism is nothing other than a statement of thesecond view.

When we consider the difference between these two approaches, wecan see that the idea of "man as a fighting animal" which Darwinism hassubconsciously imposed on people is particularly influential. Individualsand groups who choose the way of conflict may never have heard of Dar-winism and the principles of that ideology. But at the end of the day theyagree with a view whose philosophical basis rests on Darwinism. Whatleads them to believe in the rightness of this view is such Darwinism-based slogans as "In this world, the strong survive", "Big fish swallow lit-tle ones", "War is a virtue", and "Man advances by waging war". TakeDarwinism away, and these are nothing but empty slogans.

Actually, when Darwinism is taken away, no philosophy of 'conflict'remains. The three divine religions that most people in the world believein, Islam, Christianity and Judaism, all oppose violence. All three religionswish to bring peace and harmony to the world, and oppose innocent peo-ple being killed and suffering cruelty and torture. Conflict and violence vi-olate the morality that God has set out for man, and are abnormal andunwanted concepts. However, Darwinism sees and portrays conflict andviolence as natural, justified and correct concepts that have to exist.

For this reason, if some people commit terrorism using the concepts


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and symbols of Islam, Christianity or Judaism in the name of those reli-gions, you can be sure that those people are not Muslims, Christians orJews. They are real Social Darwinists. They hide under a cloak of religion,but they are not genuine believers. Even if they claim to be serving reli-gion, they are actually enemies of religion and of believers. That is becausethey are ruthlessly committing a crime that religion forbids, and in such away as to blacken religion in peoples' eyes.

For this reason, the root of the terrorism that plagues our planet is notany of the divine religions, but in atheism, and the expression of atheismin our times: "Darwinism" and "materialism."


Some people who say they are acting in the name of religion may mis-understand their religion or practice it wrongly. For that reason, it wouldbe wrong to form ideas about that religion by taking these people as an ex-ample. The best way to understand a religion is to study its divine source.

The holy source of Islam is the Qur'an; and the model of morality inthe Qur'an-Islam-is completely different from the image of it formed in theminds of some westerners. The Qur'an is based on the concepts of moral-ity, love, compassion, mercy, humility, sacrifice, tolerance and peace, and aMuslim who lives by that morality in its true sense will be most polite,considerate, tolerant, trustworthy and accomodating. He will spread love,respect, harmony and the joy of living all around him.

Islam is a Religion of Peace and Well-Being

The word Islam is derived from the word meaning "peace" in Arabic.Islam is a religion revealed to mankind with the intention of presenting apeacable life through which the infinite compassion and mercy of God man-ifest on earth. God calls all people to Islamic morals through through whichmercy, compassion, tolerance and peace can be experienced all over theworld. In Surat al-Baqara verse 208, God addresses the believers as follows:

You who believe! Enter absolutely into peace (Islam). Do not follow in thefootsteps of Satan. He is an outright enemy to you.

As the verse makes clear, security can only be ensured by 'enteringinto Islam', that is, living by the values of the Qur'an.


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The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism: Darwinism and Materialism

God Has Condemned Wickedness

God has commanded people to avoid committing evil; He has for-bidden disbelief, immorality, rebellion, cruelty, aggressiveness, murderand bloodshed. He describes those who fail to obey this command as "fol-lowing in Satan's footsteps" and adopting a posture that is openly revealedto be sinful in the Qur'an. A few of the many verses on this matter in theQur'an read:

But as for those who break God's contract after it has been agreed andsever what God has commanded to be joined, and cause corruption in theearth, the curse will be upon them. They will have the Evil Abode. (Suratar-Ra'd: 25)

Seek the abode of the hereafter with what God has given you, without for-getting your portion of the world. And do good as God has been good toyou. And do not seek to cause mischief on earth. God does not love mis-chief makers.' (Surat al-Qasas: 77)

As we can see, God has forbidden every kind of mischievous acts inthe religion of Islam including terrorism and violence, and condemnedthose who commit such deeds. A Muslim lends beauty to the world andimproves it.

Islam Defends Tolerance and Freedom of Speech

Islam is a religion which provides and guarantees freedom of ideas,thought and life. It has issued commands to prevent and forbid tension,disputes, slander and even negative thinking among people.

In the same way that it is determinedly opposed to terrorism and allacts of violence, it has also forbidden even the slightest ideological pres-sure to be put on them:

There is no compulsion in religion. Right guidance has become clearly dis-tinct from error. Anyone who rejects false gods and believes in God hasgrasped the Firmest Handhold, which will never give way. God is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. (Surat al-Baqara: 256)

So remind, you need only to remind. You cannot compel them to believe.(Surat al-Ghashiyah: 22)

Forcing people to believe in a religion or to adopt its forms of belief iscompletely contrary to the essence and spirit of Islam. According to Islam,true faith is only possible with free will and freedom of conscience. Of


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course, Muslims can advise and encourage each other about the features ofQur'anic morality, but they will never resort to compulsion, nor any kindof physical or psychological pressure. Neither will they use any worldlyprivilege to turn someone towards religion.

Let us imagine a completely opposite model of society. For example,a world in which people are forced by law to practice religion. Such amodel of society is completely contrary to Islam because faith and wor-ship are only of any value when they are directed to God by the free willof the individual. If a system imposes belief and worship on people, thenthey will become religious only out of fear of that system. From the reli-gious point of view, what really counts is that religion should be lived forGod's good pleasure in an environment where peopls' consciences are to-tally free.

God Has Made the Killing of Innocent People Unlawful

According to the Qur'an, one of the greatest sins is to kill a humanbeing who has committed no fault.

...If someone kills another person – unless it is in retaliation for someoneelse or for causing corruption in the earth – it is as if he had murdered allmankind. And if anyone gives life to another person, it is as if he hadgiven life to all mankind. Our Messengers came to them with Clear Signsbut even after that many of them committed outrages in the earth. (Suratal-Ma'ida: 32)

Those who do not call on any other deity together with God and do not killanyone God has made inviolate, except with the right to do so, and do notfornicate; anyone who does that will receive an evil punishment. (Surat al-Furqan: 68)

As the verses suggest, a person who kills innocent people for no rea-son is threatened with a great torment. God has revealed that killing evena single person is as evil as murdering all mankind. A person who ob-serves God's limits can do no harm to a single human, let alone massacrethousands of innocent people. Those who assume that they can avoid jus-tice and thus punishment in this world will never succeed, for they willhave to give an account of their deeds in the presence of God. That is whybelievers, who know that they will give an account of their deeds afterdeath, are very meticulous to observe God's limits.


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The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism: Darwinism and Materalism

God Commands Believers to be Compassionate and Merciful

Islamic morality is described in one verse as: ...To be one of those who believe and urge each other to steadfastness andurge each other to compassion. Those are the Companions of the Right.(Surat al-Balad: 17-18)

As we have seen in this verse, one of the most important moral pre-cepts that God has sent down to His servants so that they may receive sal-vation and mercy and attain Paradise, is to "urge each other tocompassion".

Islam as described in the Qur'an is a modern, enlightened, progres-sive religion. A Muslim is above all a person of peace; he is tolerant with ademocratic spirit, cultured, enlightened, honest, knowledgeable about artand science and civilized.

A Muslim educated in the fine moral teaching of the Qur'an, ap-proaches everyone with the love that Islam expects. He shows respect forevery idea and he values art and aesthetics. He is conciliatory in the faceof every event, diminishing tension and restoring amity. In societies com-posed of individuals such as this, there will be a more developed civiliza-tion, a higher social morality, more joy, happiness, justice, security,abundance and blessings than in the most modern nations of the worldtoday.

God Has Commanded Tolerance and Forgiveness

The concept of forgiveness and tolerance, described in the words,'Make allowences for people' (Surat al-A'raf: 199), is one of the most fun-damental tenets of Islam.

When we look at the history of Islam, the way that Muslims havetranslated this important feature of Qur'anic morality into the life of soci-ety can be seen quite clearly. Muslims have always brought with them anatmosphere of freedom and tolerance and destroyed unlawful practiceswherever they have gone. They have enabled people whose religions, lan-guages and cultures are completely different from one another to live to-gether in peace and harmony under one roof, and provided peace andharmony for its own members. One of the most important reasons for thecenturies-long existence of the Ottoman Empire, which spread over anenormous region, was the atmosphere of tolerance and understanding that


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Islam brought with it. Muslims, who have been known for their tolerantand loving natures for centuries, have always been the most compassion-ate and just of people. Within this multi-national structure, all ethnicgroups have been free to live according to their own religions, and theirown rules.

True tolerance can only bring peace and well-being to the world whenimplemented along the lines set out in the Qur'an. Attention is drawn tothis fact in a verse which reads:

A good action and a bad action are not the same. Repel the bad with some-thing better and, if there is enmity between you and someone else, he willbe like a bosom friend. (Surat al-Fussilat: 34)


All of this shows that the morality that Islam recommends tomankind brings to the world the virtues of peace, harmony and justice.The barbarism known as terrorism, that is so preoccupying the world atpresent, is the work of ignorant and fanatical people, completely estrangedfrom Qur'anic morality, and who have absolutely nothing to do with reli-gion. The solution to these people and groups who try to carry out theirsavagery under the mask of religion is the teaching of true Qur'anic moral-ity. In other words, Islam and Qur'anic morality are solutions to thescourge of terrorism, not supporters of it.


1. Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, 2nd edition, New York, A L. Burt Co., 1874, p. 1782. Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Racism, Science and Pseudo-Science, Unesco, France, Vendôme, 1983. p. 543. Theodore D. Hall, The Scientific Background of the Nazi "Race Purification" Program,

http://www.trufax.org/avoid/nazi.html4. L.H. Gann, "Adolf Hitler, The Complete Totalitarian", The Intercollegiate Review, Fall 1985, p. 24; cited in

Henry M. Morris, The Long war Against God, Baker Book House, 1989, p. 785. Hickman, R., Biocreation, Science Press, Worthington, OH, pp. 51–52, 1983; Jerry Bergman,

"Darwinism and the Nazi Race Holocaust", Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 13 (2): 101-111, 19996. Robert M. Young, Darwinian Evolution and Human History, Historical Studies on Science and Belief, 19807. Alan Woods and Ted Grant, Reason in Revolt: Marxism and Modern Science, London: 19938. Alex de Jonge, Stalin and The Shaping of the Soviet Uninon, William Collins Sons & Limited Co.,

Glasgow, 1987, p. 229. K. Mehnert, Kampf um Mao's Erbe, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1977

10. James Reeve Pusey, China and Charles Darwin, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1983

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For some people the theory of evolution or Darwinism has only sci-entific connotations, with seemingly no direct implication in theirdaily lives. This is, of course, a common misunderstanding. Far be-

yond just being an issue within the framework of the biological sciences,the theory of evolution constitutes the underpinning of a deceptive phi-losophy that has held sway over a large number of people: Materialism.

Materialist philosophy, which accepts only the existence of matterand presupposes man to be 'a heap of matter', asserts that he is no morethan an animal, with 'conflict' the sole rule of his existence. Although prop-agated as a modern philosophy based on science, materialism is in fact anancient dogma with no scientific basis. Conceived in Ancient Greece, thedogma was rediscovered by the atheistic philosophers of the 18th century.It was then implanted in the 19th century into several science disciplinesby thinkers such as Karl Marx, Charles Darwin and Sigmund Freud. Inother words science was distorted to make room for materialism.

The past two centuries have been a bloody arena of materialism: Ide-ologies based on materialism (or competing ideologies arguing against ma-terialism, yet sharing its basic tenets) have brought permanent violence,war and chaos to the world. Communism, responsible for the death of 120million people, is the direct outcome of materialistic philosophy. Fascism,despite pretending to be an alternative to the materialistic world-view, ac-cepted the fundamental materialist concept of progress though conflict andsparked off oppressive regimes, massacres, world wars and genocide.

Besides these two bloody ideologies, individual and social ethics havealso been corrupted by materialism.

The deceptive message of materialism, reducing man to an animalwhose existence is coincidental and with no responsibility to any being,demolished moral pillars such as love, mercy, self-sacrifice, modesty, hon-esty and justice. Having been misled by the materialists' motto "life is astruggle", people came to see their lives as nothing more than a clash of in-

Why the Theory

of Evolution?


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terests which, in turn, led to life according to the law of the jungle. Traces of this philosophy, which has a lot to answer as regards man-

made disasters of the last two centuries, can be found in every ideologythat perceives differences among people as a 'reason for conflict'. That in-cludes the terrorists of the present day who claim to uphold religion, yetcommit one of the greatest sins by murdering innocent people.

The theory of evolution, or Darwinism, comes in handy at this pointby completing the jigsaw puzzle. It provides the myth that materialism isa scientific idea. That is why, Karl Marx, the founder of communism anddialectical materialism, wrote that Darwinism was "the basis in naturalhistory" for his worldview.1

However, that basis is rotten. Modern scientific discoveries revealover and over again that the popular belief associating Darwinism withscience is false. Scientific evidence refutes Darwinism comprehensivelyand reveals that the origin of our existence is not evolution but creation.God has created the universe, all living things and man.

This book has been written to make this fact known to people. Sinceits first publication, originally in Turkey and then in many other countries,millions of people have read and appreciated the book. In addition toTurkish, it has been printed in English, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Bosnian,Arabic, Malay and Indonesian. (The text of the book is freely available inall these languages at www.evolutiondeceit.com.)

The impact of The Evolution Deceit has been acknowledged by stan-dard-bearers of the opposing view. Harun Yahya was the subject of a NewScientist article called "Burning Darwin". This leading popular Darwinistperiodical noted in its 22 April 2000 issue that Harun Yahya "is an interna-

Karl Marx made it clear that Dar-

win's theory provided a solid

ground for materialism and thus

also for communism. He also

showed his sympathy to Darwin by

dedicating Das Kapital, which is

considered as his greatest work, to

him. In the German edition of the

book, he wrote: "From a devoted

admirer to Charles Darwin"

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Why the Theory of Evolution 29

tional hero" sharing itsconcern that his books"have spread everywherein the Islamic world."

Science, the leadingperiodical of the generalscientific community, em-phasized the impact andsophistication of HarunYahya's works. The Sciencearticle "Creationism TakesRoot Where Europe, AsiaMeet", dated 18 May 2001,observed that in Turkey"sophisticated books suchas The Evolution Deceit andThe Dark Face of Darwin-ism... have become more

influential than textbooks in certain parts of the country". The reporterthen goes on to assess Harun Yahya's work, which has initiated "one of theworld's strongest anti-evolution movements outside of North America".

Although such evolutionist periodicals note the impact of The Evolu-tion Deceit, they do not offer any scientific replies to its arguments. The rea-son is, of course, that it is simply not possible. The theory of evolution is incomplete deadlock, a fact you will discover as you read the followingchapters. The book will help you realise that Darwinism is not a scientifictheory but a pseudo-scientific dogma upheld in the name of materialistphilosophy, despite counter evidence and outright refutation.

It is our hope that The Evolution Deceit will for a long time continue itscontribution towards the refutation of materialist-Darwinist dogma whichhas been misleading humanity since the 19th century. And it will remindpeople of the crucial facts of our lives, such as how we came into being andwhat our duties to our Creator are.

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The Greatest Miracle of Our Times:

Belief in the Evolution Deceit


All the millions of living species on the earth possess miraculousfeatures, unique behavioural patterns and flawless physicalstructures. Every one of these living things has been created with

its own unique detail and beauty. Plants, animals, and man above all, wereall created with great knowledge and art, from their external appearancesdown to their cells, invisible to the naked eye. Today there are a greatmany branches of science, and tens of thousands of scientists working inthose branches, that research every detail of those living things, uncoverthe miraculous aspects of those details and try to provide an answer to thequestion of how they came into being.

Some of these scientists are astonished as they discover the miracu-lous aspects of these structures they study and the intelligence behind thatcoming into existence, and they witness the infinite knowledge and wis-dom involved. Others, however, surprisingly claim that all these miracu-lous features are the product of blind chance. These scientists believe in thetheory of evolution. In their view, the proteins, cells and organs that makeup these living things all came about by a string of coincidences. It is quiteamazing that such people, who have studied for long years, carried outlengthy studies and written books about the miraculous functioning of justone organelle within the cell, itself too small to be seen with the naked eye,can think that these extraordinary structures came about by chance.

The chain of coincidences such eminent professors believe in so fliesin the face of reason that their doing so leaves outside observers utterlyamazed. According to these professors, a number of simple chemical sub-stances first came together and formed a protein - which is no more possi-ble than a randomly scattered collection of letters coming together to forma poem. Then, other coincidences led to the emergence of other proteins.These then also combined by chance in an organised manner. Not just pro-teins, but DNA, RNA, enzymes, hormones and cell organelles, all of which

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The Greatest Miracle of Our Times: Belief in the Evolution Deceit

are very complex structures within the cell, coincidentally happened toemerge and come together. As a result of these billions of coincidences, thefirst cell came into being. The miraculous ability of blind chance did notstop there, as these cells then just happened to begin to multiply. Accord-ing to the claim in question, another coincidence then organised these cellsand produced the first living thing from them.

Billions of "chance events" had to take place together for just one eyein a living thing to form. Here too the blind process known as coincidenceentered the equation: It first opened two holes of the requisite size and inthe best possible place in the skull, and then cells that happened by chanceto find themselves in those places coincidentally began to construct the eye.

As we have seen, coincidences acted in the knowledge of what theywanted to produce. Right from the very start, "chance" knew what seeing,hearing and breathing were, even though there was not one example of


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such things anywhere in the world at that time. It displayed great intelli-gence and awareness, exhibited considerable forward planning, and con-structed life step by step. This is the totally irrational scenario to whichthese professors, scientists and researchers whose names are greatly re-spected and whose ideas are so influential have devoted themselves. Evennow, with a childish stubbornness, they exclude anyone who refuses to be-lieve in such fairy tales, accusing them of being unscientific and bigoted.There is really no difference between this and the bigoted, fanatical and ig-norant medieval mentality that punished those who claimed the earth wasnot flat.

What is more, some of these people claim to be Muslims and believe inGod. Such people find saying, "God created all of life" unscientific, and yetare quite able to believe instead that saying, "It came about in an unconsciousprocess consisting of billions of miraculous coincidences" is scientific.

If you put a carved stone or wooden idol in front of these people andtold them, "Look, this idol created this room and everything in it" theywould say that was utterly stupid and refuse to believe it. Yet despite that

The mentality of those who claim that life formed from nonliving matter by random gradual changes andwho defend this with a childish stubbornness despite all scientific evidence to the contrary, is no differentfrom the bigoted, fanatical and ignorant medieval mentality that punished those who claimed the earth wasnot flat.


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they declare the nonsense that "The unconscious process known as chancegradually brought this world and all the billions of wonderful livingthings in it into being with enormous planning" to be the greatest scientificexplanation.

In short, these people regard chance as a god, and claim that it is in-telligent, conscious and powerful enough to create living things and all thesensitive balances in the universe. When told that it was God, the posses-sor of infinite wisdom, who created all living things, these evolutionistprofessors refuse to accept the fact, and maintain that unconscious, unin-telligent, powerless billions of coincidences with no will of their own areactually a creative force.

The fact that educated, intelligent and knowledgeable people can as agroup believe in the most irrational and illogical claim in history, as ifunder a spell, is really a great miracle. In the same way that God miracu-lously creates something like the cell, with its extraordinary organizationand properties, this people are just as miraculously so blind and devoid ofunderstanding as to be unable to see what is under their very noses. It isone of God's miracles that evolutionists are unable to see facts that eventiny children can, and fail to grasp them no matter how many times theyare told.

You will frequently come across that miracle as you read this book.And you will also see that as well as being a theory that has totally col-lapsed in the face of the scientific facts, Darwinism is a great deceit that isutterly incompatible with reason and logic, and which belittles those whodefend it.

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To Be Freed From



Most people accept everything they hear from scientists as strictlytrue. It does not even occur to them that scientists may also havevarious philosophical or ideological prejudices. The fact of the

matter is that evolutionist scientists impose their own prejudices andphilosophical views on the public under the guise of science. For instance,although they are aware that random events do not cause anything otherthan irregularity and confusion, they still claim that the marvellous order,plan, and design seen both in the universe and in living organisms aroseby chance.

For instance, such a biologist easily grasps that there is an incompre-hensible harmony in a protein molecule, the building block of life, and thatthere is no probability that this might have come about by chance. Never-theless, he alleges that this protein came into existence under primitiveearth conditions by chance billions of years ago. He does not stop there; healso claims, without hesitation, that not only one, but millions of proteinsformed by chance and then incredibly came together to create the first liv-ing cell. Moreover, he defends his view with a blind stubbornness. Thisperson is an "evolutionist" scientist.

If the same scientist were to find three bricks resting on top of one an-other while walking along a flat road, he would never suppose that thesebricks had come together by chance and then climbed up on top of eachother, again by chance. Indeed, anyone who did make such an assertionwould be considered insane.

How then can it be possible that people who are able to assess ordi-nary events rationally can adopt such an irrational attitude when it comesto thinking about their own existence?

It is not possible to claim that this attitude is adopted in the name ofscience: scientific approach requires taking both alternatives into consider-

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ation wherever there are two alternatives equally possible concerning acertain case. And if the likelihood of one of the two alternatives is muchlower, for example if it is only one percent, then the rational and scientificthing to do is to consider the other alternative, whose likelihood is 99 per-cent, to be the valid one.

Let us continue, keeping this scientific basis in mind. There are twoviews that can be set forth regarding how living beings came into being onearth. The first is that God creates all living beings in their present complexstructure. The second is that life was formed by unconscious, random co-incidences. The latter is the claim of the theory of evolution.

When we look at the scientific data, that of molecular biology for in-stance, we can see that there is no chance whatsoever that a single livingcell-or even one of the millions of proteins present in this cell-could havecome into existence by chance as the evolutionists claim. As we will illus-trate in the following chapters, probabilistic calculations also confirm thismany times over. So the evolutionist view on the emergence of living be-ings has zero probability of being true.

This means that the first view has a "one hundred percent" probabil-ity of being true. That is, life has been consciously brought into being. Toput it in another way, it was "created". All living beings have come into ex-istence by the design of a Creator exalted in superior power, wisdom, andknowledge. This reality is not simply a matter of conviction; it is the nor-mal conclusion that wisdom, logic and science take one to.

Under these circ*mstances, our "evolutionist" scientist ought to with-draw his claim and adhere to a fact that is both obvious and proven. To dootherwise is to demonstrate that he is actually someone who is sacrificingscience on behalf of his philosophy, ideology, and dogma rather than beinga true scientist.

The anger, stubbornness, and prejudices of our "scientist" increasemore and more every time he confronts reality. His attitude can be ex-plained with a single word: "faith". Yet it is a blind superstitious faith, sincethere can be no other explanation for one's disregard of all the facts or fora lifelong devotion to the preposterous scenario that he has constructed inhis imagination.

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Blind Materialism

The faith that we are talking about is the materialistic philosophy,which argues that matter has existed for all eternity and there is nothingother than matter. The theory of evolution is the so-called "scientific foun-dation" for this materialistic philosophy and that theory is blindly de-fended in order to uphold this philosophy. When science invalidates theclaims of evolution-and that is the very point that has been reached here atthe end of the 20th century-it then is sought to be distorted and broughtinto a position where it supports evolution for the sake of keeping materi-alism alive.

A few lines written by one of the prominent evolutionist biologists ofTurkey is a good example that enables us to see the disordered judgementand discretion that this blind devotion leads to. This scientist discusses theprobability of the coincidental formation of Cytochrome-C, which is one ofthe most essential enzymes for life, as follows:

The probability of the formation of a Cytochrome-C sequence is as likely aszero. That is, if life requires a certain sequence, it can be said that this has aprobability likely to be realised once in the whole universe. Otherwise, somemetaphysical powers beyond our definition should have acted in its forma-tion. To accept the latter is not appropriate to the goals of science. We there-fore have to look into the first hypothesis.2

This scientist finds it "more scientific" to accept a possibility "as likelyas zero" rather than creation. However according to the rules of science, ifthere are two alternative explanations concerning an event and if one ofthem has "as likely as zero" a possibility of realisation, then the other oneis the correct alternative. However the dogmatic materialistic approachforbids the admittance of a superior Creator. This prohibition drives thisscientist-and many others who believe in the same materialist dogma-toaccept claims that are completely contrary to reason.

People who believe and trust these scientists also become enthralledand blinded by the same materialistic spell and they adopt the same in-sensible psychology when reading their books and articles.

This dogmatic materialistic point of view is the reason why manyprominent names in the scientific community are atheists. Those who freethemselves from the thrall of this spell and think with an open mind do nothesitate to accept the existence of a Creator. American biochemist DrMichael J. Behe, one of those prominent names who support the theory of

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To Be Freed From Prejudice 37

"intelligent design" that has lately become very accepted, describes thescientists who resist believing in the "design" or "creation" of living organ-isms thus:

Over the past four decades, modern bio-chemistry has uncovered the secrets of thecell. It has required tens of thousands of peo-ple to dedicate the better parts of their livesto the tedious work of the laboratory… Theresult of these cumulative efforts to investi-gate the cell- to investigate life at the molec-ular level-is a loud, clear, piercing cry of"design!". The result is so unambiguous andso significant that it must be ranked as one ofthe greatest achievements in the history ofscience… Instead a curious, embarrassed si-lence surrounds the stark complexity of thecell. Why does the scientific community notgreedily embrace its startling discovery?Why is the observation of design handledwith intellectual gloves? The dilemma is thatwhile one side of the [issue] is labelled intel-ligent design, the other side must be labelled God.3

This is the predicament of the atheist evolutionist scientists you see inmagazines and on television and whose books you may be reading. All thescientific research carried out by these people demonstrates to them the ex-istence of a Creator. Yet they have become so insensitised and blinded bythe dogmatic materialist education they have absorbed that they still per-sist in their denial.

People who steadily neglect the clear signs and evidences of the Cre-ator become totally insensitive. Caught up in an ignorant self-confidencecaused by their insensitivity, they may even end up supporting an absur-dity as a virtue. A good case in point is the prominent evolutionist RichardDawkins who calls upon Christians not to assume that they have wit-nessed a miracle even if they see the statue of the Virgin Mary wave tothem. According to Dawkins, "Perhaps all the atoms of the statue's arm justhappened to move in the same direction at once-a low probability event tobe sure, but possible." 4

The psychology of the unbeliever has existed throughout history. Inthe Qur'an it is described thus:

Michael Behe:"An embarrased silence

surrounds the stark complexity ofthe cell"

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Even if We did send unto them angels, andthe dead did speak unto them, and Wegathered together all things before theirvery eyes, they are not the ones to believe,unless it is in God's plan. But most of themignore (the truth). (Surat al-Anaam : 111)

As this verse makes clear, the dogmaticthinking of the evolutionists is not an originalway of thinking, nor is it even peculiar tothem. In fact, what the evolutionist scientistmaintains is not a modern scientific thoughtbut an ignorance that has persevered sincethe most uncivilised pagan communities.

The same psychology is defined in another verse of the Qur'an:Even if We opened out to them a gate from heaven and they were to con-tinue (all day) ascending therein, they would only say: "Our eyes have beenintoxicated: Nay, we have been bewitched by sorcery." (Surat Al-Hijr : 14-15)

Mass Evolutionist Indoctrination

As indicated in the verses cited above, one of the reasons why peoplecannot see the realities of their existence is a kind of "spell" impeding theirreasoning. It is the same "spell" that underlies the world-wide acceptanceof the theory of evolution. What we mean by spell is a conditioning ac-quired by indoctrination. People are exposed to such an intense indoctri-nation about the correctness of the theory of evolution that they often donot even realise the distortion that exists.

This indoctrination creates a negative effect on the brain and disablesthe faculty of judgement. Eventually, the brain, being under a continuousindoctrination, starts to perceive the realities not as they are but as theyhave been indoctrinated. This phenomenon can be observed in other ex-amples. For instance, if someone is hypnotised and indoctrinated that thebed he is lying on is a car, he perceives the bed as a car after the hypnosissession. He thinks that this is very logical and rational because he reallysees it that way and has no doubt that he is right. Such examples as the oneabove, which show the efficiency and the power of the mechanism of in-doctrination, are scientific realities that have been verified by countless ex-


Richard Dawkins, busy with propagating evolution

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periments that have been reported in the scientific literature and are theeveryday fare of psychology and psychiatry textbooks.

The theory of evolution and the materialistic world view that relies onit are imposed on the masses by such indoctrination methods. People whocontinuously encounter the indoctrination of evolution in the media, aca-demic sources, and "scientific" platforms, fail to realise that accepting thistheory is in fact contrary to the most basic principles of reason. The sameindoctrination captures scientists as well. Young names stepping up in theirscientific careers adopt the materialist world view more and more as timepasses. Enchanted by this spell, many evolutionist scientists go on searchingfor scientific confirmation of 19th century's irrational and outdated evolu-tionist claims that have long since been refuted by scientific evidence.

There are also additional mechanisms that force scientists to beevolutionist and materialist. In Western countries, a scientist has to ob-serve some standards in order to be promoted, to receive academic recog-nition, or to have his articles published in scientific journals. Astraightforward acceptance of evolution is the number-one criterion. Thissystem drives these scientists so far as to spend their whole lives and sci-entific careers for the sake of a dogmatic belief. American molecular biolo-gist Jonathan Wells refers to these pressure mechanisms in his book Iconsof Evolution published in 2000:

...Dogmatic Darwinists begin by imposing a narrow interpretation on the ev-idence and declaring it the only way to do science. Crit-ics are then labeled unscientific; their articles are rejectedby mainstream journals, whose editorial boards aredominated by the dogmatists; the critics are deniedfunding by government agencies, who send grant pro-posals to the dogmatists for "peer" review; and even-tually the critics are hounded out of scientificcommunity altogether. In the process, evidenceagainst the Darwinian view simply disappears, likewitnesses against the Mob. Or the evidence isburied in specialized publications, where only adedicated researcher can find. Once critics havebeen silenced and counter-evidence has beenburied, the dogmatists announce that there is scientific debate abouttheir theory, and no evidence against it.5

This is the reality that continues to lie behind the assertion "evolution

To Be Freed From Prejudice 39

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is still accepted by the world of science". Evolution is kept alive not be-cause it has a scientific worth but because it is an ideological obligation.Very few of the scientists who are aware of this fact can risk pointing out thatthe king isn't wearing any clothes.

In the rest of this book, we will be reviewing the findings of modernscience against evolution which are either disregarded by evolutionists or"buried in specialized publications", and display of the clear evidence ofGod's existence. The reader will witness that evolution theory is in fact adeceit-a deceit that is belied by science at every step but is upheld to veilthe fact of creation. What is to be hoped of the reader is that he will wakeup from the spell that blinds people's minds and disrupts their ability tojudge and he will reflect seriously on what is related in this book.

If he rids himself of this spell and thinks clearly, freely, and withoutany prejudice, he will soon discover the crystal-clear truth. This inevitabletruth, also demonstrated by modern science in all its aspects, is that livingorganisms came into existence not by chance but as a result of creation.Man can easily see the fact of creation when he considers how he himselfexists, how he has come into being from a drop of water, or the perfectionof every other living thing.

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A Brief History

of the Theory


The roots of evolutionist thought go back as far as antiquity as a dog-matic belief attempting to deny the fact of creation. Most of thepagan philosophers in ancient Greece defended the idea of evolu-

tion. When we take a look at the history of philosophy we see that the ideaof evolution constitutes the backbone of many pagan philosophies.

However, it is not this ancient pagan philosophy, but faith in Godwhich has played a stimulating role in the birth and development of mod-ern science. Most of the people who pioneered modern science believed inthe existence of God; and while studying science, they sought to discoverthe universe God has created and to perceive His laws and the details inHis creation. Astronomers such as Copernicus, Keppler, and Galileo; thefather of paleontology, Cuvier; the pioneer of botany and zoology, Lin-naeus; and Isaac Newton, who is referred to as the "greatest scientist whoever lived", all studied science believing not only in the existence of Godbut also that the whole universe came into being as a result of His cre-ation.6 Albert Einstein, considered to be the greatest genius of our age,was another devout scientist who believed in God and stated thus; "I can-not conceive of a genuine scientist without that profound faith. The situa-tion may be expressed by an image: science without religion is lame." 7

One of the founders of modern physics, German physician MaxPlanck said: "Anybody who has been seriously engaged in scientific workof any kind realizes that over the entrance to the gates of the temple of sci-ence are written the words: Ye must have faith. It is a quality which the sci-entist cannot dispense with." 8

The theory of evolution is the outcome of the materialist philosophythat surfaced with the reawakening of ancient materialistic philosophiesand became widespread in the 19th century. As we have indicated before,materialism seeks to explain nature through purely material factors. Sinceit denies creation right from the start, it asserts that every thing, whetheranimate or inanimate, has appeared without an act of creation but rather

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as a result of a coincidence that then acquired a condition of order. Thehuman mind however is so structured as to comprehend the existence ofan organising will wherever it sees order. Materialistic philosophy, whichis contrary to this very basic characteristic of the human mind, produced"the theory of evolution" in the middle of the 19th century.

Darwin's Imagination

The person who put forward the theory of evolution the way it is de-fended today, was an amateur English naturalist, Charles Robert Darwin.

Darwin had never undergone a formal education in biology. He tookonly an amateur interest in the subject of nature and living things. His in-terest spurred him to voluntarily join an expedition on board a ship namedH.M.S. Beagle that set out from England in 1832 and travelled around dif-ferent regions of the world for five years. Young Darwin was greatly im-pressed by various living species, especially by certain finches that he sawin the Galapagos Islands. He thought that the variations in their beakswere caused by their adaptation to their habitat. With this idea in mind, hesupposed that the origin of life and species lay in the concept of "adapta-tion to the environment". According to Darwin, God did not create differ-ent living species separately but they rather came from a common ancestorand became differentiated from each other as a result of natural conditions.

Darwin's hypothesis was not based on any scientific discovery or ex-periment; in time however he turned it into a pretentious theory with thesupport and encouragement he received from the famous materialist biol-ogists of his time. The idea was that the individuals that adapted to thehabitat in the best way transferred their qualities to subsequent genera-tions; these advantageous qualities accumulated in time and transformedthe individual into a species totally different from its ancestors. (The originof these "advantageous qualities" was unknown at the time.) According toDarwin, man was the most developed outcome of this mechanism.

Darwin called this process "evolution by natural selection". Hethought he had found the "origin of species": the origin of one species wasanother species. He published these views in his book titled The Origin ofSpecies, By Means of Natural Selection in 1859.

Darwin was well aware that his theory faced lots of problems. He


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A Brief History Of The Theory

confessed these in his book in the chapter "Difficulties of the Theory".These difficulties primarily consisted of the fossil record, complex organsof living things that could not possibly be explained by coincidence (e.g.the eye), and the instincts of living beings. Darwin hoped that these diffi-culties would be overcome by new discoveries; yet this did not stop himfrom coming up with a number of very inadequate explanations for some.The American physicist Lipson made the following comment on the "dif-ficulties" of Darwin:

On reading The Origin of Species, I found that Darwin was much less surehimself than he is often represented to be; the chapter entitled "Difficulties ofthe Theory" for example, shows considerable self-doubt. As a physicist, I wasparticularly intrigued by his comments on how the eye would have arisen.9

While developing his theory, Darwin was impressed by many evolu-tionist biologists preceding him, and primarily by the French biologist,Lamarck.10 According to Lamarck, living creatures passed the traits theyacquired during their lifetime from one generation to the next and thusevolved. For instance, giraffes evolved from antelope-like animals by ex-tending their necks further and further from generation to generation asthey tried to reach higher and higher branches for food. Darwin thus em-ployed the thesis of "passing the acquired traits" proposed by Lamarck asthe factor that made living beings evolve.

But both Darwin and Lamarck were mistaken because in their day,life could only be studied with very primitive technology and at a very in-adequate level. Scientific fields such as genetics and biochemistry did notexist even in name. Their theories therefore had to depend entirely on theirpowers of imagination.

While the echoes of Darwin's book reverber-ated, an Austrian botanist by the name of GregorMendel discovered the laws of inheritance in 1865.Not much heard of until the end of the century,Mendel's discovery gained great importance in theearly 1900s. This was the birth of the science of ge-netics. Somewhat later, the structure of the genesand the chromosomes was discovered. The discov-ery, in the 1950s, of the structure of the DNA mole-cule that incorporates genetic information threwthe theory of evolution into a great crisis. The rea-


Charles Darwin

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One of the

most im-

p o r t a n t

yet least-known as-

pects of Darwin is

his racism: Darwin

regarded white Eu-

ropeans as more

"advanced" than

other human races.

While Darwin presumed that

man evolved from ape-like

creatures, he surmised that

some races developed more

than others and that the latter

still bore simian features. In his

book, The Descent of Man,

which he published after The

Origin of Species, he boldly

commented on "the greater dif-

ferences between men of dis-

tinct races".1 In his book,

Darwin held blacks and Aus-

tralian Aborigines to be equal to

gorillas and then inferred that

these would be "done away

with" by the "civilised races" in

time. He said:

At some future period, not very distant

as measured by centuries, the civilized

races of man will almost certainly ex-

terminate and replace the savage races

throughout the world. At the same time

the anthropomorphous apes... will no

doubt be exterminated. The break be-

tween man and his nearest allies will

then be wider, for it will intervene in a

more civilised state, as we may hope,

even than the Caucasian, and some

ape as low as baboon, instead of as

now between the negro or Australian

and the gorilla.2

Darwin's nonsensical ideas were not

only theorised,

but also brought

into a position

where they pro-

vided the most

important "scien-

tific ground" for

racism. Suppos-

ing that living be-

ings evolved in

the struggle for

life, Darwinism

was even

adapted to the social sciences, and

turned into a conception that came to be

called "Social Darwinism".

Social Darwinism contends that ex-

isting human races are located at differ-

ent rungs of the "evolutionary ladder",

that the European races were the most

"advanced" of all, and that many other

races still bear "simian" features.

1- Benjamin Farrington, What Darwin Re-ally Said. London: Sphere Books, 1971,pp. 54-56

2- Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man,2nd ed., New York: A.L. Burt Co., 1874, p.178

Darwin's Racism

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A Brief History Of The Theory 45

son was the incredible complexity of life and the invalidity of the evolu-tionary mechanisms proposed by Darwin.

These developments ought to have resulted in Darwin's theory beingbanished to the dustbin of history. However, it was not, because certain cir-cles insisted on revising, renewing, and elevating the theory to a scientificplatform. These efforts gain meaning only if we realise that behind thetheory lay ideological intentions rather than scientific concerns.

The Desperate Efforts of Neo-Darwinism

Darwin's theory entered into a deep crisis because of the laws of ge-netics discovered in the first quarter of the 20th century. Nevertheless, agroup of scientists who were determined to remain loyal to Darwin en-deavoured to come up with solutions. They came together in a meeting or-ganised by the Geological Society of America in 1941. Geneticists such asG. Ledyard Stebbins and Theodosius Dobzhansky, zoologists such as ErnstMayr and Julian Huxley, paleontologists such as George Gaylord Simpsonand Glenn L. Jepsen, and mathematical geneticists such as Ronald Fisherand Sewall Right, after long discussions, finally agreed on ways to "patchup" Darwinism.

This cadre focused on the question of the origin of the advantageousvariations that supposedly caused living organisms to evolve-an issuethat Darwin himself was unable to explain but simply tried to side-step bydepending on Lamarck. The idea was now "random mutations". Theynamed this new theory "The Modern Synthetic Evolution Theory", whichwas formulated by adding the concept of mutation to Darwin's natural se-lection thesis. In a short time, this theory came to be known as "neo-Dar-winism" and those who put forward the theory were called"neo-Darwinists".

The following decades were to become an era of desperate attemptsto prove neo-Darwinism. It was already known that mutations-or "acci-dents" -that took place in the genes of living organisms were always harm-ful. Neo-Darwinists tried to establish a case for "advantageous mutation"by carrying out thousands of mutation experiments. All their attemptsended in complete failure.

They also tried to prove that the first living organisms could haveoriginated by chance under primitive terrestrial conditions that the theory

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posited but the same failure attended these experiments too. Every exper-iment that sought to prove that life could be generated by chance failed.Probability calculations prove that not even a single protein, the building-blocks of life, could have originated by chance. And the cell-which sup-posedly emerged by chance under primitive and uncontrolled terrestrialconditions according to the evolutionists-could not be synthesised by eventhe most sophisticated laboratories of the 20th century.

Neo-Darwinist theory is also defeated by the fossil record. No "tran-sitional forms", which were supposed to show the gradual evolution of liv-ing organisms from primitive to advanced species as the neo-Darwinisttheory claimed, have ever been found anywhere in the world. At the sametime, comparative anatomy revealed that species that were supposed tohave evolved from one another had in fact very different anatomical fea-tures and that they could never have been ancestors or descendants of eachother.

But neo-Darwinism was never a scientific theory anyway, but was anideological dogma if not to say some sort of "religion". The Darwinist pro-fessor of philosophy and zoology Michael Ruse confesses this in thesewords:

And certainly, there's no doubt about it, that in the past, and I think also inthe present, for many evolutionists, evolution has functioned as somethingwith elements which are, let us say, akin to being a secular religion ... And itseems to me very clear that at some very basic level, evolution as a scientifictheory makes a commitment to a kind of naturalism...11

This is why the champions of the theory of evolution still go on de-fending it in spite of all the evidence to the contrary. One thing they can-not agree on however is which of the different models proposed for therealisation of evolution is the "right" one. One of the most important ofthese models is the fantastic scenario known as "punctuated equilibrium".

Trial and Error: Punctuated Equilibrium

Most of the scientists who believe in evolution accept the neo-Dar-winist theory of slow, gradual evolution. In recent decades, however, a dif-ferent model has been proposed. Called "punctuated equilibrium", thismodel maintains that living species came about not through a series ofsmall changes, as Darwin had maintained, but by sudden, large ones.

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W hen Darwin put for-ward his as-

sumptions, thedisciplines of genet-ics, microbiology,and biochemistrydid not yet exist. Ifthey had been dis-covered before Dar-

win put forward his theory,Darwin might easily haverecognised that his theorywas totally unscientific andmight not have attemptedto advance such meaning-less claims. The information deter-mining the species already exists inthe genes and it is impossible fornatural selection to produce newspecies through alterations in thegenes.

Similarly, the world of science inthose days had a very shallow andcrude understanding of the structureand functions of the cell. If Darwinhad had the chance to view the cellwith an electron microscope, hewould have witnessed the great com-plexity and extraordinary structure inthe organelles of the cell. He wouldhave beheld with his owneyes that it would not be possi-ble for such an intricate and com-plex system to occur throughminor variations. If he had knownabout bio-mathematics, then hewould have realised that not evena single protein molecule, letalone a whole cell, could not havecome into existence by chance.

Detailed studies of the cell wereonly possible after the discovery

of the electron microscope. InDarwin's time, with the primitive

microscopes seen here, it wasonly possible to view the outside

surface of the cell.

The Primitive Level of Science in Darwin's Time

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The first vociferous defenders of this no-tion appeared at the beginning of the 1970s.Two American paleontologists, Niles El-dredge and Stephen Jay Gould, were wellaware that the claims of the neo-Darwinisttheory were absolutely refuted by the fossilrecord. Fossils proved that living organismsdid not originate by gradual evolution, butappeared suddenly and fully-formed. Neo-Darwinists were living with the fond hope-they still do-that the lost transitional formswould one day be found. Realising that this hope was groundless, El-dredge and Gould were nevertheless unable to abandon their evolutionarydogma, so they put forward a new model: punctuated equilibrium. This isthe claim that evolution did not take place as a result of minor variationsbut rather in sudden and great changes.

This model was nothing but a model for fantasies. For instance, Eu-ropean paleontologist O.H. Shindewolf, who led the way for Eldredge andGould, claimed that the first bird came out of a reptile egg, as a "gross mu-tation", that is, as a result of a huge "accident" that took place in the geneticstructure.12 According to the same theory, some land-dwelling animalscould have turned into giant whales having undergone a sudden and com-prehensive transformation. These claims, totally contradicting all the rulesof genetics, biophysics, and biochemistry are as scientific as the fairy talesabout frogs turning into princes! Nevertheless, being distressed by the cri-sis that the neo-Darwinist assertion was in, some evolutionist paleontolo-gists embraced this theory, which had the distinction of being even morebizarre than neo-Darwinism itself.

The only purpose of this model was to provide an explanation of thegaps in the fossil-record that the neo-Darwinist model could not explain.However, it is hardly rational to attempt to explain the fossil gap in theevolution of birds with a claim that "a bird popped all of a sudden out ofa reptile egg", because by the evolutionists' own admission, the evolutionof a species to another species requires a great and advantageous changein genetic information. However, no mutation whatsoever improves thegenetic information or adds new information to it. Mutations only derangegenetic information. Thus the "gross mutations" imagined by the punctu-


Stephen Jay Gould

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A Brief History Of The Theory

ated equilibrium model would only cause "gross", that is "great", reduc-tions and impairments in the genetic information.

Moreover, the model of "punctuated equilibrium" collapses from thevery first step by its inability to address the question of the origin of life,which is also the question that refutes the neo-Darwinist model from theoutset. Since not even a single protein can have originated by chance, thedebate over whether organisms made up of trillions of those proteins haveundergone a "punctuated" or "gradual" evolution is senseless.

In spite of this, the model that comes to mind when "evolution" is atissue today is still neo-Darwinism. In the chapters that follow, we will firstexamine two imaginary mechanisms of the neo-Darwinist model and thenlook at the fossil record to test this model. After that, we will dwell uponthe question of the origin of life, which invalidates both the neo-Darwinistmodel and all other evolutionist models such as "evolution by leaps".

Before doing so, it may be useful to remind the reader that the realitywe will be confronting at every stage is that the evolutionary scenario is afairy-tale, a great deceit that is totally at variance with the real world. It isa scenario that has been used to deceive the world for 140 years. Thanks tothe latest scientific discoveries, its continued defence has at last becomeimpossible.


Today, tens of thousands of scientists around the world, particularly in the USA and Europe, defy the the-ory of evolution and have published many books on the invalidity of the theory. Above are a few exam-ples.

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The neo-Darwinist model, which we shall take as the mainstreamtheory of evolution today, argues that life has evolved through twonatural mechanisms: "natural selection" and "mutation". The theory

basically asserts that natural selection and mutation are two complemen-tary mechanisms. The origin of evolutionary modifications lies in randommutations that take place in the genetic structures of living things. Thetraits brought about by mutations are selected by the mechanism of nat-ural selection, and by this means living things evolve.

When we look further into this theory, we find that there is no suchevolutionary mechanism. Neither natural selection nor mutations makeany contribution at all to the transformation of different species into oneanother, and the claim that they do is completely unfounded.

Natural SelectionAs process of nature, natural selection was familiar to biologists be-

fore Darwin, who defined it as a "mechanism that keeps species unchang-ing without being corrupted". Darwin was the first person to put forwardthe assertion that this process had evolutionary power and he then erectedhis entire theory on the foundation of this assertion. The name he gave tohis book indicates that natural selection was the basis of Darwin's theory:The Origin of Species, by means of Natural Selection...

However since Darwin's time, there has not been a single shred of ev-idence put forward to show that natural selection causes living things toevolve. Colin Patterson, the senior paleontologist of the British Museum ofNatural History in London and a prominent evolutionist, stresses that nat-ural selection has never been observed to have the ability to cause things toevolve:

No one has ever produced a species by mechanisms of natural selection.No one has ever got near it and most of the current argument in neo-Darwin-ism is about this question.13

Imaginary Mechanisms

of Evolution


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Imaginary Mechanisms of Evolution 51

Natural selection holds that those living things that are more suited tothe natural conditions of their habitats will prevail by having offspringthat will survive, whereas those that are unfit will disappear. For example,in a deer herd under the threat of wild animals, naturally those that canrun faster will survive. That is true. But no matter how long this processgoes on, it will not transform those deer into another living species. Thedeer will always remain deer.

When we look at the few incidents the evolutionists have put forth asobserved examples of natural selection, we see that these are nothing but asimple attempt to hoodwink.

"Industrial Melanism"In 1986 Douglas Futuyma published a book, The Biology of Evolution,

which is accepted as one of the sources explaining the theory of evolutionby natural selection in the most explicit way. The most famous of his ex-amples on this subject is about the colour of the moth population, whichappeared to darken during the Industrial Revolution in England. It is pos-sible to find the story of the Industrial Melanism in almost all evolutionistbiology books, not just in Futuyma's book. The story is based on a series ofexperiments conducted by the British physicist and biologist Bernard Ket-tlewell in the 1950s, and can be summarised as follows:

According to the account, around the onset of the Industrial Revolu-tion in England, the colour of the tree barks around Manchester was quitelight. Because of this, dark-coloured (melanic) moths resting on those treescould easily be noticed by the birds that fed on them and therefore theyhad very little chance of survival. Fifty years later, in woodlands where in-dustrial pollution has killed the lichens, the barks of the trees had dark-ened, and now the light-colored moths became the most hunted, since theywere the most easily noticed. As a result, the proportion of light-colouredmoths to dark-coloured moths decreased. Evolutionists believe this to be agreat piece of evidence for their theory. They take refuge and solace in win-dow-dressing, showing how light-coloured moths "evolved" into dark-coloured ones.

However, although we believe these facts to be correct, it should bequite clear that they can in no way be used as evidence for the theory ofevolution, since no new form arose that had not existed before. Dark col-ored moths had existed in the moth population before the Industrial Revo-

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lution. Only the relative proportions of the existing moth varieties in thepopulation changed. The moths had not acquired a new trait or organ,which would cause "speciation". In order for one moth species to turn intoanother living species, a bird for example, new additions would have hadto be made to its genes. That is, an entirely separate genetic programwould have had to be loaded so as to include information about the phys-ical traits of the bird.

This is the answer to be given to the evolutionist story of IndustrialMelanism. However, there is a more interesting side to the story: Not justit* interpretation, but the story itself is flawed. As molecular biologistJonathan Wells explains in his book Icons of Evolution, the story of the pep-pered moths, which is included in every evolutionist biology book and hastherefore, become an "icon" in this sense, does not reflect the truth. Wellsdiscusses in his book how Bernard Kettlewell's experiment, which isknown as the "experimental proof" of the story, is actually a scientific scan-dal. Some basic elements of this scandal are:

• Many experiments conducted after Kettlewell's revealed that onlyone type of these moths rested on tree trunks, and all other types pre-ferred to rest beneath small, horizontal branches. Since 1980 it has be-

Industrial Melanism is certainly not an evidence for evolution because the process did not pro-duce any new species of moths. The selection was only among already existing varieties. More-over, the classical story of melanism is deceptive. The textbook pictures above (portrayed asgenuine photos) are in fact of dead specimens glued or pinned to tree trunks by evolutionists.

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Imaginary Mechanisms of Evolution 53

come clear that peppered moths do not normally rest on tree trunks.In 25 years of fieldwork, many scientists such as Cyril Clarke andRory Howlett, Michael Majerus, Tony Liebert, and Paul Brakefieldconcluded that "in Kettlewell's experiment, moths were forced to actatypically, therefore, the test results could not be accepted as scien-tific". • Scientists who tested Kettlewell's conclusions came up with an evenmore interesting result: Although the number of light moths would beexpected to be larger in the less polluted regions of England, the darkmoths there numbered four times as many as the light ones. Thismeant that there was no correlation between the moth population andthe tree trunks as claimed by Kettlewell and repeated by almost allevolutionist sources. • As the research deepened, the scandal changed dimension: "Themoths on tree trunks" photographed by Kettlewell, were actuallydead moths. Kettlewell used dead specimens glued or pinned to treetrunks and then photographed them. In truth, there was little chanceof taking such a picture as the moths rested not on tree trunks but un-derneath the leaves.14

These facts were uncovered by the scientific community only in thelate 1990s. The collapse of the myth of Industrial Melanism, which hadbeen one of the most treasured subjects in "Introduction to Evolution"courses in universities for decades, greatly disappointed evolutionists.One of them, Jerry Coyne, remarked:

My own reaction resembles the dismay attending my discovery, at the age ofsix, that it was my father and not Santa who brought the presents on Christ-mas Eve.15

Thus, "the most famous example of natural selection" was relegatedto the trash-heap of history as a scientific scandal which was inevitable, be-cause natural selection is not an "evolutionary mechanism," contrary towhat evolutionists claim. It is capable neither of adding a new organ to aliving organism, nor of removing one, nor of changing an organism of onespecies into that of another.

Can Natural Selection Explain Complexity?There is nothing that natural selection contributes to the theory of

evolution, because this mechanism can never increase or improve the ge-

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netic information of a species. Neither can it transform one species intoanother: a starfish into a fish, a fish into a frog, a frog into a crocodile, or acrocodile into a bird. The biggest defender of punctuated equilibrium,Stephen Jay Gould, refers to this impasse of natural selection as follows;

The essence of Darwinism lies in a single phrase: natural selection is the cre-ative force of evolutionary change. No one denies that selection will play anegative role in eliminating the unfit. Darwinian theories require that it cre-ate the fit as well.16

Another of the misleading methods that evolutionists employ on theissue of natural selection is their effort to present this mechanism as a con-scious designer. However, natural selection has no consciousness. It doesnot possess a will that can decide what is good and what is bad for livingthings. As a result, natural selection cannot explain biological systems andorgans that possess the feature of "irreducible complexity". These systemsand organs are composed of a great number of parts cooperating together,and are of no use if even one of these parts is missing or defective. (For ex-ample, the human eye does not function unless it exists with all its compo-nents intact). Therefore, the will that brings all these parts together shouldbe able to foresee the future and aim directly at the advantage that is to beacquired at the final stage. Since natural selection has no consciousness orwill, it can do no such thing. This fact, which demolishes the foundationsof the theory of evolution, also worried Darwin, who wrote: "If it could bedemonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possiblyhave been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, mytheory would absolutely break down." 17

Natural selection serves as a mechanism of eliminating weak individuals within a species. It is aconservative force which preserves the existing species from degeneration. Beyond that, it hasno capability of transforming one species to another.

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Imaginary Mechanisms of Evolution 55

Natural selection only selects out the disfigured, weak, or unfit indi-viduals of a species. It cannot produce new species, new genetic informa-tion, or new organs. That is, it cannot make anything evolve. Darwinaccepted this reality by saying: "Natural selection can do nothing untilfavourable variations chance to occur".18 This is why neo-Darwinism hashad to elevate mutations next to natural selection as the "cause of benefi-cial changes". However as we shall see, mutations can only be "the causefor harmful changes".

Mutations Mutations are defined as breaks or replacements taking place in the

DNA molecule, which is found in the nuclei of the cells of a living organ-ism and which contains all its genetic information. These breaks or re-placements are the result of external effects such as radiation or chemicalaction. Every mutation is an "accident" and either damages the nucleotidesmaking up the DNA or changes their locations. Most of the time, theycause so much damage and modification that the cell cannot repair them.

Mutation, which evolutionists frequently hide behind, is not a magicwand that transforms living organisms into a more advanced and perfectform. The direct effect of mutations is harmful. The changes effected bymutations can only be like those experienced by people in Hiroshima, Na-gasaki, and Chernobyl: that is, death, disability, and freaks of nature…

The reason for this is very simple: DNA has a very complex structure,and random effects can only damage it. B.G. Ranganathan states:

First, genuine mutations are very rare in nature. Secondly, most mutationsare harmful since they are random, rather than orderly changes in the struc-ture of genes; any random change in a highly ordered system will be for theworse, not for the better. For example, if an earthquake were to shake ahighly ordered structure such as a building, there would be a random changein the framework of the building which, in all probability, would not be animprovement. 19

Not surprisingly, no useful mutation has been so far observed. Allmutations have proved to be harmful. The evolutionist scientist WarrenWeaver comments on the report prepared by the Committee on Genetic Ef-fects of Atomic Radiation, which had been formed to investigate mutationsthat might have been caused by the nuclear weapons used in the SecondWorld War:

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Many will be puzzled about the statement that practically all known mutantgenes are harmful. For mutations are a necessary part of the process of evo-lution. How can a good effect - evolution to higher forms of life - results frommutations practically all of which are harmful? 20

Every effort put into "generating a useful mutation" has resulted infailure. For decades, evolutionists carried out many experiments to pro-duce mutations in fruit flies as these insects reproduce very rapidly and somutations would show up quickly. Generation upon generation of theseflies were mutated, yet no useful mutation was ever observed. The evolu-tionist geneticist Gordon Taylor writes thus:

It is a striking, but not much mentioned fact that, though geneticists havebeen breeding fruit-flies for sixty years or more in labs all around the world-flies which produce a new generation every eleven days-they have never yetseen the emergence of a new species or even a new enzyme.21

Another researcher, Michael Pitman, comments on the failure of theexperiments carried out on fruit flies:

Morgan, Goldschmidt, Muller, and other geneticists have subjected genera-tions of fruit flies to extreme conditions of heat, cold, light, dark, and treat-ment by chemicals and radiation. All sorts of mutations, practically all trivial

Left: A normal fruit fly (drosophila).Right: A fruit fly with its legs jutting from itshead; a mutation induced by radiation.





A disastrous effect of mutations on the human body. The boy at left is a Chernobyl nu-clear plant accident victim.

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Imaginary Mechanisms of Evolution 57

or positively deleterious, have been produced. Man-made evolution? Not re-ally: Few of the geneticists' monsters could have survived outside the bottlesthey were bred in. In practice mutants die, are sterile, or tend to revert to thewild type.22

The same holds true for man. All mutations that have been observedin human beings have had deleterious results. On this issue, evolutioniststhrow up a smokescreen and try to enlist examples of even such deleteri-ous mutations as "evidence for evolution". All mutations that take place inhumans result in physical deformities, in infirmities such as mongolism,Down syndrome, albinism, dwarfism or cancer. These mutations are pre-sented in evolutionist textbooks as examples of "the evolutionary mecha-nism at work". Needless to say, a process that leaves people disabled orsick cannot be "an evolutionary mechanism"-evolution is supposed to pro-duce forms that are better fitted to survive.

To summarise, there are three main reasons why mutations cannot bepressed into the service of supporting evolutionists' assertions:l) The direct effect of mutations is harmful: Since they occur randomly,they almost always damage the living organism that undergoes them. Rea-son tells us that unconscious intervention in a perfect and complex struc-ture will not improve that structure, but will rather impair it. Indeed, no"useful mutation" has ever been observed.2) Mutations add no new information to an organism's DNA: The parti-cles making up the genetic information are either torn from their places,destroyed, or carried off to different places. Mutations cannot make a liv-ing thing acquire a new organ or a new trait. They only cause abnormali-ties like a leg sticking out of the back, or an ear from the abdomen.3) In order for a mutation to be transferred to the subsequent generation,it has to have taken place in the reproductive cells of the organism: Arandom change that occurs in a cell or organ of the body cannot be trans-ferred to the next generation. For example, a human eye altered by the ef-fects of radiation or by other causes will not be passed on to subsequentgenerations.

Briefly, it is impossible for living beings to have evolved, becausethere exists no mechanism in nature that can cause evolution. Further-more, this conclusion agrees with the evidence of the fossil record, whichdoes not demonstrate the existence of a process of evolution, but ratherjust the contrary.

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The Fossil Record

Refutes Evolution


According to the theory of evolution, every living species hasemerged from a predecessor. One species which existed previ-ously turned into something else over time and all species have

come into being in this way. According to the theory, this transformationproceeds gradually over millions of years.

If this were the case, then innumerable intermediate species shouldhave lived during the immense period of time when these transformationswere supposedly occurring. For instance, there should have lived in thepast some half-fish/half-reptile creatures which had acquired some reptil-ian traits in addition to the fish traits they already had. Or there shouldhave existed some reptile/bird creatures, which had acquired some aviantraits in addition to the reptilian traits they already possessed. Evolution-ists refer to these imaginary creatures, which they believe to have lived inthe past, as "transitional forms".

If such animals had really existed, there would have been millions,even billions, of them. More importantly, the remains of these creaturesshould be present in the fossil record. The number of these transitionalforms should have been even greater than that of present animal species,and their remains should be found all over the world. In The Origin ofSpecies, Darwin accepted this fact and explained:

If my theory be true, numberless intermediate varieties, linking most closelyall of the species of the same group together must assuredly have existed...Consequently evidence of their former existence could be found onlyamongst fossil remains.23

Even Darwin himself was aware of the absence of such transitionalforms. He hoped that they would be found in the future. Despite his opti-mism, he realised that these missing intermediate forms were the biggeststumbling-block for his theory. That is why he wrote the following in thechapter of the The Origin of Species entitled "Difficulties of the Theory":

…Why, if species have descended from other species by fine gradations, dowe not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms? Why is not all na-

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The Fossil Record Refutes Evolution 59

ture in confusion, instead of the species being, as we see them, well de-fined?… But, as by this theory innumerable transitional forms must have ex-isted, why do we not find them embedded in countless numbers in the crustof the earth?… But in the intermediate region, having intermediate condi-tions of life, why do we not now find closely-linking intermediate varieties?This difficulty for a long time quite confounded me.24

The only explanation Darwin could come up with to counter this objec-tion was the argument that the fossil record uncovered so far was inadequate.He asserted that when the fossil record had been studied in detail, the miss-ing links would be found.

Believing in Darwin's prophecy, evolutionist paleontologists havebeen digging up fossils and searching for missing links all over the worldsince the middle of the 19th century. Despite their best efforts, no transi-tional forms have yet been uncovered. All the fossils unearthed in exca-vations have shown that, contrary to the beliefs of evolutionists, lifeappeared on earth all of a sudden and fully-formed. Trying to prove theirtheory, evolutionists have instead unwittingly caused it to collapse.

A famous British paleontologist, Derek V. Ager, admits this fact eventhough he is an evolutionist:

The point emerges that if we examine the fossil record in detail, whether atthe level of orders or of species, we find-over and over again-not gradualevolution, but the sudden explosion of one group at the expense of an-other.25

Another evolutionist paleontologist Mark Czarnecki comments asfollows:

A major problem in proving the theory has been the fossil record; the im-prints of vanished species preserved in the Earth's geological formations.This record has never revealed traces of Darwin's hypothetical intermediatevariants - instead species appear and disappear abruptly, and this anomalyhas fueled the creationist argument that each species was created by God.26

These gaps in the fossil record cannot be explained by saying that suf-ficient fossils have not yet been found, but that they one day will be. An-other American scholar, Robert Wesson, states in his 1991 book BeyondNatural Selection, that "the gaps in the fossil record are real and meaning-ful". He elaborates this claim in this way:

The gaps in the record are real, however. The absence of a record of any im-portant branching is quite phenomenal. Species are usually static, or nearlyso, for long periods, species seldom and genera never show evolution into

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The theory of evolution claims that species continuously evolve into otherspecies. But when we compare living things to their fossils, we see that theyhave remained unchanged for millions of years. This fact is a clear evidence

that falsifies the claims of evolutionists.

The living honeybee is no differentthan its fossil relative, which ismillions of years old.

The 135 million year old dragon flyfossil is no different than its modern counterparts.

A comparison of ant fossil aged100 million years and an ant livingin our day clearly indicates thatants do not have any evolutionaryhistory.

Living Fossils

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The Fossil Record Refutes Evolution 61

new species or genera but replacement of one by another, and change is moreor less abrupt.27

Life Emerged on Earth Suddenly and in Complex Forms When terrestrial strata and the fossil record are examined, it is to be

seen that all living organisms appeared simultaneously. The oldest stratumof the earth in which fossils of living creatures have been found is that ofthe Cambrian, which has an estimated age of 500-550 million years.

The living creatures found in the strata belonging to the Cambrian pe-riod emerged all of a sudden in the fossil record-there are no pre-existingancestors. The fossils found in Cambrian rocks belonged to snails, trilo-bites, sponges, earthworms, jellyfish, sea hedgehogs, and other complexinvertebrates. This wide mosaic of living organisms made up of such agreat number of complex creatures emerged so suddenly that this miracu-lous event is referred to as the "Cambrian Explosion" in geological litera-ture.

Most of the creatures in this layer have complex systems have com-plex systems and advanced structures, such as eyes, gills, and circulatorysystems, exactly the same as those in modern specimens. For instance, thedouble-lensed, combed eye structure of trilobites is a wonder of design.David Raup, a professor of geology in Harvard, Rochester, and ChicagoUniversities, says: "the trilobites 450 million years ago used an optimaldesign which would require a well trained and imaginative optical engi-neer to develop today".28

These complex invertebrates emerged suddenly and completely with-out having any link or any transitional form between them and the unicel-lular organisms, which were the only life forms on earth prior to them.

Richard Monastersky, a science journalist at Science News, one of thepopular publications of evolutionist literature, states the following aboutthe "Cambrian Explosion", which is a deathtrap for evolutionary theory:

A half-billion years ago, the remarkably complex forms of animals we seetoday suddenly appeared. This moment, right at the start of Earth's Cam-brian Period, some 550 million years ago, marks the evolutionary explosionthat filled the seas with the earth's first complex creatures. ...the large animalphyla of today were present already in the early Cambrian ...and they wereas distinct from each other as they are today.29

Deeper investigation into the Cambrian Explosion shows what a

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great dilemma it creates for the theory of evolution. Recent findings indi-cate that almost all phyla, the most basic animal divisions, emergedabruptly in the Cambrian period. An article published in Science magazinein 2001 says: "The beginning of the Cambrian period, some 545 millionyears ago, saw the sudden appearance in the fossil record of almost all themain types of animals (phyla) that still dominate the biota today".30 Thesame article notes that for such complex and distinct living groups to beexplained according to the theory of evolution, very rich fossil beds show-ing a gradual developmental process should have been found, but this hasnot yet proved possible:

This differential evolution and dispersal, too, must have required a previoushistory of the group for which there is no fossil record. Furthermore, cladisticanalyses of arthropod phylogeny revealed that trilobites, like eucrustaceans,are fairly advanced "twigs" on the arthropod tree. But fossils of these allegedancestral arthropods are lacking. ...Even if evidence for an earlier origin isdiscovered, it remains a challenge to explain why so many animals shouldhave increased in size and acquired shells within so short a time at the base ofthe Cambrian.31

How the earth came to overflow with such a great number of animalspecies all of a sudden, and how these distinct types of species with nocommon ancestors could have emerged, is a question that remains unan-swered by evolutionists. The Oxford University zoologist RichardDawkins, one of the foremost advocates of evolutionist thought in theworld, comments on this reality that undermines the very foundation of allthe arguments he has been defending:

The fossil record proves thattransitional forms never ex-isted, no evolution tookplace and all specieshave been createdseparately in a per-fect form.

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The Fossil Record Refutes Evolution 63

For example the Cambrian strata of rocks... are the oldest ones in which wefind most of the major invertebrate groups. And we find many of them al-ready in an advanced state of evolution, the very first time they appear. It isas though they were just planted there, without any evolutionary history.32

As Dawkins is forced to acknowledge, the Cambrian Explosion isstrong evidence for creation, because creation is the only way to explainthe fully-formed emergence of life on earth. Douglas Futuyma, a promi-nent evolutionist biologist admits this fact: "Organisms either appeared onthe earth fully developed or they did not. If they did not, they must havedeveloped from pre-existing species by some process of modification. Ifthey did appear in a fully developed state, they must indeed have beencreated by some omnipotent intelligence." 33 Darwin himself recognisedthe possibility of this when he wrote: "If numerous species, belonging tothe same genera or families, have really started into life all at once, the factwould be fatal to the theory of descent with slow modification throughnatural selection."34 The Cambrian Period is nothing more or less than

T he trilobites that ap-peared in the Cam-

brian period all of a suddenhave an extremely complexeye structure. Consisting ofmillions of honeycomb-shaped tiny particles and a double-lens system, this eye "has an optimal design whichwould require a well-trained and imaginative optical en-gineer to develop today" in the words of David Raup,a professor of geology.This eye emerged 530 million years ago in a perfectstate. No doubt, the sudden appearance of such awondrous design cannot be explained by evolutionand it proves the actuality of creation.

Moreover, the honeycomb eye structure of the trilobitehas survived to our own day without a single change.Some insects such as bees and dragon flies have thesame eye structure as did the trilobite.* This situationdisproves the evolutionary thesis that living thingsevolved progressively from the primitive to the complex.

(*) R.L.Gregory, Eye and Brain: The Physiology of Seeing,

Oxford University Press, 1995, p.31


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Darwin's "fatal stroke". This is why the Swiss evolutionist paleoanthropolo-gist Stefan Bengtson, who confesses the lack of transitional links while de-scribing the Cambrian Age, makes the following comment: "Baffling (andembarrasing) to Darwin, this event still dazzles us".35

As may be seen, the fossil record indicates that living things did notevolve from primitive to the advanced forms, but instead emerged all of asudden and in a perfect state. In short, living beings did not come into ex-istence by evolution, they were created.

Molecular Comparisons Deepen Evolution's Cambrian Impasse

Another fact that puts evolutionists into a deep quandary about theCambrian Explosion is the comparisons between different living taxa. Theresults of these comparisons reveal that animal taxa considered to be "closerelatives" by evolutionists until quite recently, are genetically very differ-ent, which puts the "intermediate form" hypothesis, that only exists theo-retically, into an even greater quandary. An article published in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2000 reports thatDNA analyses have displaced taxa that used to be considered "intermedi-ate forms" in the past:

DNA sequence analysis dictates new interpretation of phylogenic trees. Taxathat were once thought to represent successive grades of complexity at thebase of the metazoan tree are being displaced to much higher positions insidethe tree. This leaves no evolutionary "intermediates" and forces us to rethinkthe genesis of bilaterian complexity...36

In the same article, evolutionist writers note that some taxa whichwere considered "intermediate" between groups such as sponges, cnidari-ans and ctenophores can no longer be considered as such because of newgenetic findings, and that they have "lost hope" of constructing such evo-lutionary family trees:

The new molecular based phylogeny has several important implications.Foremost among them is the disappearance of "intermediate" taxa betweensponges, cnidarians, ctenophores, and the last common ancestor of bilateri-ans or "Urbilateria." ...A corollary is that we have a major gap in the stemleading to the Urbilataria. We have lost the hope, so common in older evolu-tionary reasoning, of reconstructing the morphology of the "coelomate ances-tor" through a scenario involving successive grades of increasing complexitybased on the anatomy of extant "primitive" lineages.37

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According to the hypothetical scenario of "from sea to land",some fish felt the need to pass

from sea to land because of feed-ing problems. This claim is "sup-

ported" by such speculativedrawings.

Tale of Transition from

Water to Land


Evolutionists assume that the sea invertebrates that appear in theCambrian stratum somehow evolved into fish in tens of millionyears. However, just as Cambrian invertebrates have no ancestors,

there are no transitional links indicating that an evolution occurred be-tween these invertebrates and fish. It should be noted that invertebratesand fish have enormous structural differences. Invertebrates have theirhard tissues outside their bodies, whereas fish are vertebrates that havetheirs on the inside. Such an enormous "evolution" would have taken bil-lions of steps to be completed and there should be billions of transitionalforms displaying them.

Evolutionists have been digging fossil strata for about 140 years look-ing for these hypothetical forms. They have found millions of invertebratefossils and millions of fish fossils; yet nobody has ever found even one thatis midway between them.

An evolutionist paleontologist, Gerald T. Todd, admits a similar factin an article titled "Evolution of the Lung and the Origin of Bony Fishes":

All three subdivisions of bony fishes first appear in the fossil record at ap-proximately the same time. They are already widely divergent morphologi-cally, and are heavily armored. How did they originate? What allowed themto diverge so widely? How did they all come to have heavy armour? Andwhy is there no trace of earlier, intermediate forms?38

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The evolutionary scenario goes one step further and argues that fish,who evolved from invertebrates then transformed into amphibians. Butthis scenario also lacks evidence. There is not even a single fossil verifyingthat a half-fish/half-amphibian creature has ever existed. Robert L. Car-roll, an evolutionary palaeontologist and authority on vertebrate palaeon-tology, is obliged to accept this. He has written in his classic work,Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, that "The early reptiles were very dif-ferent from amphibians and their ancestors have not been found yet." Inhis newer book, Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution, published in1997, he admits that "The origin of the modern amphibian orders, (and) thetransition between early tetrapods" are "still poorly known" along with theorigins of many other major groups.39 Two evolutionist paleontologists,Colbert and Morales, comment on the three basic classes of amphibians-frogs, salamanders, and caecilians:

There is no evidence of any Paleozoic amphibians combining the charac-teristics that would be expected in a single common ancestor. The oldestknown frogs, salamanders, and caecilians are very similar to their living de-scendants.40

Until about fifty years ago, evolutionists thought that such a creatureindeed existed. This fish, called a coelacanth, which was estimated to be410 million years of age, was put forward as a transitional form with aprimitive lung, a developed brain, a digestive and a circulatory systemready to function on land, and even a primitive walking mechanism. These

410-million-year-old coelacanth fossil. Evolutionists claimed that it was the transitionalform representing the transition from water to land. Living examples of this fish have been caught many times since 1938, providing a good example of the extent of the speculations that evolutionists engage in.

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Ev o l u t i o n i s t s

claim that one

day, a species

dwelling in water some-

how stepped onto land

and was transformed

into a land-dwelling


There are a number of obvious facts

that render such a transition impossi-


1. Weight-bearing: Sea-dwelling crea-

tures have no problem in bearing their

own weight in the sea.

However, most land-dwelling creatures

consume 40% of their energy just in car-

rying their bodies around. Creatures

making the transition from water to land

would at the same time have had to de-

velop new muscular and skeletal sys-

tems (!) to meet this energy need, and

this could not have come about by

chance mutations.

2. Heat Retention: On land, the tempera-

ture can change quickly, and fluctuates

over a wide range. Land-dwelling crea-

tures possess a physical mechanism

that can withstand such great tempera-

ture changes. However, in the sea, the

temperature changes slowly and within a

narrower range. A living organism with a

body system regulated according to the

constant temperature of the sea would

need to acquire a protective system to

ensure minimum harm from the tempera-

ture changes on land. It is preposterous

to claim that fish acquired such a system

by random mutations as soon as they

stepped onto land.

3. Water: Essential to metabolism, water

needs to be used economically due to its

relative scarcity on land. For instance,,

the skin has to be able to permit a certain

amount of water loss, while also prevent-

ing excessive evaporation. That is why

land-dwelling creatures experience

thirst, something the land-dwelling crea-

tures do not do. For this reason, the skin

of sea-dwelling animals is not suitable

for a nonaquatic habitat.

4. Kidneys: Sea-dwelling organisms dis-

charge waste materials, especially am-

monia, by means of their aquatic

environment. On land, water has to be

used economically. This is why these liv-

ing beings have a kidney system. Thanks

to the kidneys, ammonia is stored by

being converted into urea and the mini-

mum amount of water is used during its

excretion. In addition, new systems are

needed to provide the kidney's function-

ing. In short, in order for the passage

from water to land to have occurred, liv-

ing things without a kidney would have

had to develop a kidney system all at


5. Respiratory system: Fish "breathe" by

taking in oxygen dissolved in water that

they pass through their gills. They canot

live more than a few minutes out of water.

In order to survive on land, they would

have to acquire a perfect lung system all

of a sudden.

It is most certainly impossible that all

these dramatic physiological changes

could have happened in the same organ-

ism at the same time, and all by chance.

Why Transition From Water to Land is Impossible

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anatomical interpretations were accepted as undisputed truth among sci-entific circles until the end of the 1930's. The coelacanth was presented asa genuine transitional form that proved the evolutionary transition fromwater to land.

However on December 22, 1938, a very interesting discovery wasmade in the Indian Ocean. A living member of the coelacanth family, pre-viously presented as a transitional form that had become extinct seventymillion years ago, was caught! The discovery of a "living" prototype of thecoelacanth undoubtedly gave evolutionists a severe shock. The evolution-ist paleontologist J.L.B. Smith said that "If I'd met a dinosaur in the street Iwouldn't have been more astonished".41 In the years to come, 200 coela-canths were caught many times in different parts of the world.

Living coelacanths revealed how far the evolutionists could go inmaking up their imaginary scenarios. Contrary to what had been claimed,coelacanths had neither a primitive lung nor a large brain. The organ thatevolutionist researchers had proposed as a primitive lung turned out to benothing but a lipid pouch.42 Furthermore, the coelacanth, which was in-troduced as "a reptile candidate getting prepared to pass from sea toland", was in reality a fish that lived in the depths of the oceans and neverapproached nearer than 180 metres from the surface.43

Just as the evolutionarytheory cannot explainbasic classes of living

things such as fish and reptiles,neither can it explain the originof the orders within theseclasses. For example, turtles,which is a reptilian order, appearin the fossil record all of a sud-den with their unique shells. Toquote from an evolutionary source: "...by the middle of the Triassic Period (about175,000,000 years ago) its (turtle's) members were already numerous and in pos-session of the basic turtle characteristics. The links between turtles and coty-losaurs from which turtles probably sprang are almost entirely lacking"(Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 1971, v.22, p.418)

There is no difference between the fossils of ancient turtles and the living membersof this species today. Simply put, turtles have not "evolved"; they have always been

Turtle fossilaged 100 mil-lion years: Nodifferent fromits moderncounterpart.(The Dawn ofLife, OrbisPub., London1972)


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Origin of Birds

and Mammals


According to the theory of evolution, life originated and evolved inthe sea and then was transported onto land by amphibians. Thisevolutionary scenario also suggests that amphibians evolved into

reptiles, creatures living only on land. This scenario is again implausible,due to the enormous structural differences between these two classes ofanimals. For instance, the amphibian egg is designed for developing inwater whereas the amniotic egg is designed for developing on land. A"step by step" evolution of an amphibian is out of the question, becausewithout a perfect and fully-designed egg, it is not possible for a species tosurvive. Moreover, as usual, there is no evidence of transitional forms thatwere supposed to link amphibians with reptiles. Evolutionist paleontolo-gist and an authority on vertebrate paleontology, Robert L. Carroll has toaccept that "the early reptiles were very different from amphibians andthat their ancestors could not be found yet."44

Yet the hopelessly doomed scenarios of the evolutionists are not overyet. There still remains the problem of making these creatures fly! Sinceevolutionists believe that birds must somehow have been evolved, they as-sert that they were transformed from reptiles. However, none of the dis-tinct mechanisms of birds, which have a completely different structurefrom land-dwelling animals, can be explained by gradual evolution. Firstof all, the wings, which are the exceptional traits of birds, are a great im-passe for the evolutionists. One of the Turkish evolutionists, Engin Korur,confesses the impossibility of the evolution of wings:

The common trait of the eyes and the wings is that they can only function ifthey are fully developed. In other words, a halfway-developed eye cannotsee; a bird with half-formed wings cannot fly. How these organs came intobeing has remained one of the mysteries of nature that needs to be enlight-ened.45

The question of how the perfect structure of wings came into being asa result of consecutive haphazard mutations remains completely unan-

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swered. There is no way to explain how the front arms of a reptile couldhave changed into perfectly functioning wings as a result of a distortion inits genes (mutation).

Moreover, just having wings is not sufficient for a land organism tofly. Land-dwelling organisms are devoid of many other structural mecha-nisms that birds use for flying. For example, the bones of birds are muchlighter than those of land-dwelling organisms. Their lungs function in avery different way. They have a different muscular and skeletal systemand a very specialised heart-circulatory system. These features are pre-req-uisites of flying needed at least as much as wings. All these mechanismshad to exist at the same time and altogether; they could not have formedgradually by being "accumulated". This is why the theory asserting thatland organisms evolved into aerial organisms is completely fallacious.

All of these bring another question to the mind: even if we supposethis impossible story to be true, then why are the evolutionists unable tofind any "half-winged" or "single-winged" fossils to back up their story?

Another Alleged Transitional Form: ArchæopteryxEvolutionists pronounce the name of one single creature in response.

This is the fossil of a bird called Archæopteryx, one of the most widely-known so-called transitional forms among the very few that evolutionists

The anatomy of birds is very different from that of reptiles, their supposed ancestors. Bird lungsfunction in a totally different way from those of land-dwelling animals. Land-dwelling animalsbreathe in and out from the same air vessel. In birds, while the air enters into the lung from thefront, it goes out from the back. This distinct "design" is specially made for birds, which needgreat amounts of oxygen during flight. It is impossible for such a structure to evolve from the rep-tile lung.


Reptile lung Avian lung



In Out




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Origin of Birds and Mammals 71

still defend. Archæopteryx, the so-called ancestor of modern birds accord-ing to evolutionists, lived approximately 150 million years ago. The theoryholds that some small dinosaurs, such as Velociraptors or Dromeosaurs,evolved by acquiring wings and then starting to fly. Thus, Archæopteryx isassumed to be a transitional form that branched off from its dinosaur an-cestors and started to fly for the first time.

However, the latest studies of Archæopteryx fossils indicate that thiscreature is absolutely not a transitional form, but an extinct species of bird,having some insignificant differences from modern birds.

The thesis that Archæopteryx was a "half-bird" that could not fly per-fectly was popular among evolutionist circles until not long ago. The ab-sence of a sternum (breastbone) in this creature was held up as the mostimportant evidence that this bird could not fly properly. (The sternum is abone found under the thorax to which the muscles required for flight areattached. In our day, this breastbone is observed in all flying and non-fly-ing birds, and even in bats, a flying mammal which belongs to a very dif-ferent family.)

However, the seventh Archæopteryx fossil, which was found in1992, caused great astonishment among evolutionists. The reason was thatin this recently discovered fossil, the breastbone that was long assumed byevolutionists to be missing was discovered to have existed after all. Thisfossil was described in Nature magazine as follows:

The recently discovered seventh specimen of the Archaeopteryx preserves apartial, rectangular sternum, long suspected but never previously docu-mented. This attests to its strong flight muscles.46

This discovery invalidated the mainstay of the claims thatArchæopteryx was a half-bird that could not fly properly.

Moreover, the structure of the bird's feathers became one of the mostimportant pieces of evidence confirming that Archæopteryx was a flyingbird in the real sense. The asymmetric feather structure of Archæopteryx isindistinguishable from that of modern birds, and indicates that it could flyperfectly well. As the eminent paleontologist Carl O. Dunbar states, "be-cause of its feathers [Archæopteryx is] distinctly to be classed as a bird." 47

Another fact that was revealed by the structure of Archæopteryx'sfeathers was its warm-blooded metabolism. As was discussed above, rep-tiles and dinosaurs are cold-blooded animals whose body heat fluctuateswith the temperature of their environment, rather than being homeostati-

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cally regulated. A very important function of the feathers on birds is themaintenance of a constant body temperature. The fact that Archæopteryxhad feathers showed that it was a real, warm-blooded bird that needed toregulate its body heat, in contrast to dinosaurs.

Speculations of Evolutionists: The Teeth and Claws of ArchæopteryxTwo important points evolutionist biologists rely on when claiming

Archæopteryx was a transitional form, are the claws on its wings and itsteeth.

It is true that Archæopteryx had claws on its wings and teeth in itsmouth, but these traits do not imply that the creature bore any kind of re-lationship to reptiles. Besides, two bird species living today, Taouraco andHoatzin, have claws which allow them to hold onto branches. These crea-tures are fully birds, with no reptilian characteristics. That is why it is com-pletely groundless to assert that Archæopteryx is a transitional form justbecause of the claws on its wings.

Neither do the teeth in Archæopteryx's beak imply that it is a transi-tional form. Evolutionists make a purposeful trickery by saying that theseteeth are reptile characteristics, since teeth are not a typical feature of rep-tiles. Today, some reptiles have teeth while others do not. Moreover,Archæopteryx is not the only bird species to possess teeth. It is true thatthere are no toothed birds in existence today, but when we look at the fos-sil record, we see that both during the time of Archæopteryx and after-wards, and even until fairly recently, a distinct bird genus existed thatcould be categorised as "birds with teeth".

The most important point is that the tooth structure of Archæopteryxand other birds with teeth is totally different from that of their allegedancestors, the dinosaurs. The well-known ornithologists L. D. Martin, J. D.Steward, and K. N. Whetstone observed that Archæopteryx and other simi-lar birds have teeth with flat-topped surfaces and large roots. Yet the teethof theropod dinosaurs, the alleged ancestors of these birds, are protuberantlike saws and have narrow roots.48

These researchers also compared the wrist bones of Archæopteryx andtheir alleged ancestors, the dinosaurs, and observed no similarity betweenthem.49

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Origin of Birds and Mammals 73

Studies by anatomists like S. Tarsitano, M. K. Hecht, and A.D. Walkerhave revealed that some of the similarities that John Ostrom and otherhave seen between Archæopteryx and dinosaurs were in reality misinter-pretations.50

All these findings indicate that Archæopteryx was not a transitionallink but only a bird that fell into a category that can be called "toothedbirds".

Archæopteryx and Other Ancient Bird FossilsWhile evolutionists have for decades been proclaiming Archæopteryx

to be the greatest evidence for their scenario concerning the evolution ofbirds, some recently-found fossils invalidate that scenario in other re-spects.

Lianhai Hou and Zhonghe Zhou, two paleontologists at the ChineseInstitute of Vertebrate Paleontology, discovered a new bird fossil in 1995,and named it Confuciusornis. This fossil is almost the same age asArchæopteryx (around 140 million years), but has no teeth in its mouth. Inaddition, its beak and feathers shared the same features as today's birds.Confuciusornis has the same skeletal structure as modern birds, but also hasclaws on its wings, just like Archæopteryx. Another structure peculiar tobirds called the "pygostyle", which supports the tail feathers, was alsofound in Confuciusornis. In short, this fossil-which is the same age asArchæopteryx, which was previously thought to be the earliest bird andwas accepted as a semi-reptile-looks very much like a modern bird. This

fact has invalidated all the evo-lutionist theses claimingArchæopteryx to be the primi-tive ancestor of all birds.51

Another fossil unearthedin China, caused even greaterconfusion. In November 1996,

When bird feathers are examined in detail, itis seen that they are made up of thousands oftiny tendrils attached to one another withhooks. This unique design results in superioraerodynamic performance.

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The theory of evolu-tion, which claimsthat birds evolved

from reptiles, is unable toexplain the huge differ-ences between these twodifferent living classes. Interms of such features astheir skeleton structure,

lung systems, and warm-blooded metabo-lism, birds are very different from reptiles.Another trait that poses an insurmount-able gap between birds and reptiles is thefeathers of birds which have a form en-tirely peculiar to them.

The bodies of reptiles are covered withscales, whereas the bodies of birds arecovered with feathers. Since evo-lutionists consider reptiles theancestor of birds, they areobliged to claim that bird feathershave evolved from reptile scales.However, there is no similaritybetween scales and feathers.

A professor of physiologyand neurobiology from the Uni-versity of Connecticut, A.H.Brush, accepts this reality al-though he is an evolutionist:"Every feature from gene struc-ture and organization, to develop-ment, morphogenesis and tissueorganization is different (in feathers andscales)."1 Moreover, Prof. Brush examinesthe protein structure of bird feathers andargues that it is "unique among verte-brates".2

There is no fossil evidence to provethat bird feathers evolved from reptilescales. On the contrary, "feathers appearsuddenly in the fossil record, as an'unde-niably unique' character distinguishingbirds" as Prof. Brush states.3 Besides, inreptiles, no epidermal structure has yetbeen detected that provides an origin forbird feathers.4

In 1996, paleontologists made abuzzabout fossils of a so-called feathered di-

nosaur, called Sinosauropteryx. However,in 1997, it was revealed that these fossilshad nothing to do with birds and that theywere not modern feathers.5

On the other hand, when we examinebird feathers closely, we come across avery complex design that cannot be ex-plained by any evolutionary process. Thefamous ornithologist Alan Feduccia statesthat "every feature of them has aerody-namic functions. They are extremely light,have the ability to lift up which increasesin lower speeds, and may return to theirprevious position very easily". Then hecontinues, "I cannot really understandhow an organ perfectly designed for flightmay have emerged for another need at the


The design of feath-ers also compelledCharles Darwin ponderthem. Moreover, the per-fect aesthetics of thepeafowl's feathers hadmade him "sick" (hisown words). In a letterhe wrote to Asa Gray onApril 3, 1860, he said "Iremember well the timewhen the thought of theeye made me cold allover, but I have got over

this stage of complaint..."And then contin-ued: "...and now trifling particulars ofstructure often make me very uncomfort-able. The sight of a feather in a peaco*ck'stail, whenever I gaze at it, makes me sick!" 7

1- A. H. Brush, "On the Origin of Feathers". Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 9, 1996, p.132

2- A. H. Brush, "On the Origin of Feathers". p. 1313- Ibid.4- Ibid.5- "Plucking the Feathered Dinosaur", Science, Vol.

278, 14 November 1997, p. 12296- Douglas Palmer, "Learning to Fly" (Review of The

Origin of and Evolution of Birds by Alan Feduccia,Yale University Press, 1996), New Scientist, Vol.153, March, 1 1997, p. 44

7- Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried: An Appeal toReason. Boston, Gambit, 1971, p. 101

The Design of the Bird Feathers

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the existence of a 130-million-year-old bird named Liaoningornis was an-nounced in Science by L. Hou, L. D. Martin, and Alan Feduccia. Liaoningor-nis had a breastbone to which the muscles for flight were attached, just asin modern birds. This bird was indistinguishable from modern birds alsoin other respects, too. The only difference was the teeth in its mouth. Thisshowed that birds with teeth did not possess the primitive structure al-leged by evolutionists.52 This was stated in an article in Discover "Whencecame the birds? This fossil suggests that it was not from dinosaur stock".53

Another fossil that refuted the evolutionist claims regardingArchæopteryx was Eoalulavis. The wing structure of Eoalulavis, which wassaid to be some 25 to 30 million years younger than Archæopteryx, was alsoobserved in modern slow-flying birds. This proved that 120 million yearsago, there were birds indistinguishable from modern birds in many re-spects flying in the skies.54

These facts once more indicate for certain that neither Archæopteryxnor other ancient birds similar to it were transitional forms. The fossils donot indicate that different bird species evolved from each other. On thecontrary, the fossil record proves that today's modern birds and some ar-chaic birds such as Archæopteryx actually lived together at the same time. Itis true that some of these bird species, such as Archæopteryx and Confuciu-sornis, have become extinct, but the fact that only some of the species thatonce existed have been able to survive down to the present day does not initself support the theory of evolution.

In brief, several features of Archæopteryx indicate that this creaturewas not a transitional form. The overall anatomy of Archæopteryx implystasis, not evolution. Paleontologist Robert Carroll has to admit that:

The geometry of the flight feathers of Archaeopteryx is identical with that ofmodern flying birds, whereas nonflying birds have symmetrical feathers. Theway in which the feathers are arranged on the wing also falls within therange of modern birds… According to Van Tyne and Berger, the relative sizeand shape of the wing of Archaeopteryx are similar to that of birds that movethrough restricted openings in vegetation, such as gallinaceous birds, doves,woodco*cks, woodpeckers, and most passerine birds… The flight feathershave been in stasis for at least 150 million years…55

Origin of Birds and Mammals 75

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The Imaginary Bird-Dinosaur LinkThe claim of evolutionists trying to present

Archæopteryx as a transitional form is that birdshave evolved from dinosaurs. However, one ofthe most famous ornithologists in the world,Alan Feduccia from the University of NorthCarolina, opposes the theory that birds are re-lated to dinosaurs, despite the fact that he is anevolutionist himself. Feduccia has this to say re-garding the thesis of reptile-bird evolution:

Well, I've studied bird skulls for 25 years and Idon't see any similarities whatsoever. I justdon't see it... The theropod origins of birds, in my opinion, will be the great-est embarrassment of paleontology of the 20th century.56

Larry Martin, a specialist on ancient birds from the University ofKansas, also opposes the theory that birds are descended from dinosaurs.Discussing the contradiction that evolution falls into on the subject, hestates:

To tell you the truth, if I had to support the dinosaur origin of birds withthose characters, I'd be embarrassed every time I had to get up and talk aboutit.57

To sum up, the scenario of the "evolution of birds" erected solely onthe basis of Archæopteryx, is nothing more than a product of the prejudicesand wishful thinking of evolutionists.

The bird named Confuciusornis is the same age as Archæopteryx

Prof. Alan Feduccia

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C laiming that

d i n o s a u r s

transformed into

birds, evolution-

ists support their

assertion by say-

ing that some di-

nosaurs who

flapped their front legs to

hunt flies "took wing and

flew" as seen in the picture.

Having no scientific basis

whatsoever and being noth-

ing but a figment of the

imagination, this theory also

entails a very simple logical

contradiction: the example given by evo-

lutionists to explain the origin of flying,

that is, the fly, already has a perfect abil-

ity to fly. Whereas a human cannot open

and close his eyes 10 times a second, an

average fly flutters its wings 500 times a

second. Moreover, it moves both its

wings simultaneously. The slightest dis-

sonance in the vibration of wings would

cause the fly lose its balance but this

never happens.

Evolutionists should first come up

with an explanation as to how the fly ac-

quired this perfect ability to fly. Instead,

they fabricate imaginary scenarios

about how much more clumsy creatures

like reptiles came to fly.

Even the perfect creation of the

housefly invalidates the claim of evolu-

tion. English biologist Robin Wootton

wrote in an article titled "The Mechanical

Design of Fly Wings":

The better we understand the function-

ing of insect wings, the more subtle

and beautiful their designs appear.

Structures are traditionally designed to

deform as little as possible; mecha-

nisms are designed to move compo-

nent parts in predictable ways. Insect

wings combine both in one, using com-

ponents with a wide range of elastic

properties, elegantly assembled to

allow appropriate deformations in re-

sponse to appropriate forces and to

make the best possible use of the air.

They have few if any technological par-


On the other hand, there is not a sin-

gle fossil that can be evidence for the

imaginary evolution of flies. This is what

the distinguished French zoologist

Pierre Grassé meant when he said "We

are in the dark concerning the origin of

insects." 2

1- Robin J. Wootton, "The Mechanical De-

sign of Insect Wings", Scientific American,

v. 263, November 1990, p.120

2- Pierre-P Grassé, Evolution of Living Or-

ganisms, New York, Academic Press, 1977,


What is the Origin of Flies?

An example from evolutionist scenarios: Dinosaurs thatsuddenly took wing while trying to catch flies!

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The Origin of MammalsAs we have stated before, the theory of evolution proposes that some

imaginary creatures that came out of the sea turned into reptiles, and thatbirds evolved from reptiles. According to the same scenario, reptiles arethe ancestors not only of birds but also of mammals. However, there aregreat differences between these two classes. Mammals are warm-bloodedanimals (this means they can generate their own heat and maintain it at asteady level), they give live birth, they suckle their young, and their bodiesare covered in fur or hair. Reptiles, on the other hand, are cold-blooded(i.e., they cannot generate heat, and their body temperature changes ac-cording to the external temperature), they lay eggs, they do not suckletheir young, and their bodies are covered in scales.

One example of the structural barriers between reptiles and mammalsis their jaw structure. Mammal jaws consist of only one mandibular bonecontaining the teeth. In reptiles, there are three little bones on both sides ofthe mandible. Another basic difference is that all mammals have threebones in their middle ear (hammer, anvil, and stirrup). Reptiles have but asingle bone in the middle ear. Evolutionists claim that the reptile jaw andmiddle ear gradually evolved into the mammal jaw and ear. The questionof how an ear with a single bone evolved into one with three bones, andhow the sense of hearing kept on functioning in the meantime can never beexplained. Not surprisingly, not one single fossil linking reptiles and mam-mals has been found. This is why evolutionist science writer Roger Lewinwas forced to say, "The transition to the first mammal, which probablyhappened in just one or, at most, two lineages, is still an enigma".58

George Gaylord Simpson, one of the most popular evolutionary au-thorities and a founder of the neo-Darwinist theory, makes the followingcomment regarding this perplexing difficulty for evolutionists:

The most puzzling event in the history of life on earth is the change from theMesozoic, the Age of Reptiles, to the Age of Mammals. It is as if the curtainwere rung down suddenly on the stage where all the leading roles weretaken by reptiles, especially dinosaurs, in great numbers and bewildering va-riety, and rose again immediately to reveal the same setting but an entirelynew cast, a cast in which the dinosaurs do not appear at all, other reptiles aresupernumeraries, and all the leading parts are played by mammals of sortsbarely hinted at in the preceding acts.59

Furthermore, when mammals suddenly made their appearance, they

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were already very different from each other. Such dissim-ilar animals as bats, horses, mice, and whales are allmammals, and they all emerged during the same geo-logical period. Establishing an evolutionary rela-tionship among them is impossible even by thebroadest stretch of the imagination.The evolutionist zoologist R. EricLombard makes this point in an arti-cle that appeared in the leading jour-nal Evolution:

Those searching for specific infor-mation useful in constructing phy-logenies of mammalian taxa willbe disappointed.60

All of these demonstrate that allliving beings appeared on earth sud-denly and fully formed, without anyevolutionary process. This is concreteevidence of the fact that they werecreated. Evolutionists, however, tryto interpret the fact that living speciescame into existence in a particularorder as an indication of evolution.Yet the sequence by which livingthings emerged is the "order of cre-ation", since it is not possible tospeak of an evolutionary process.With a superior and flawless cre-ation, oceans and then lands werefilled with living things and finallyman was created.

Contrary to the "ape man" story that is imposed on the masses withintense media propaganda, man also emerged on earth suddenly and fullyformed.

Origin of Birds and Mammals 79

Evolutionists propose that all mammal species evolvedfrom a common ancestor.

However, there are great differencesbetween various mammal speciessuch as bears, whales, mice, and bats. Each of theseliving beings possessesspecifically designedsystems. For example,bats are created with avery sensitive sonar system that helps themfind their way in dark-ness. These complexsystems, whichmodern technologycan only imitate,could not possibly have emerged as a result of chance coincidence.The fossil record also demonstratesthat bats came into being in their pre-sent perfect state all of a sudden andthat they have not undergone any "evolutionary process".

A bat fossil aged 50million years: no dif-

ferent from its moderncounterpart. (Science,

vol. 154)

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Until recently, an imagi-nary sequence sup-posedly showing the

evolution of the horse was ad-vanced as the principal fossilevidence for the theory of evo-lution. Today, however, manyevolutionists themselvesfrankly admit that the scenario

of horse evolution is bankrupt. In 1980, a four-day symposium was held at the Field Museumof Natural History in Chicago, with 150 evolu-tionists in attendance, to discuss the problemswith gradualistic evolutionary theory. In ad-dressing the meeting, evolutionist BoyceRensberger noted that the scenario of the evo-lution of the horse has no foundation in thefossil record, and that no evolutionary proc-cess has been observed that would accountfor the gradual evolution of horses:

The popularly told example of horse evolu-tion, suggesting a gradual sequence ofchanges from four-toed fox-sized crea-tures living nearly 50 million years ago totoday's much larger one-toed horse, haslong been known to be wrong. Instead ofgradual change, fossils of each intermedi-ate species appear fully distinct, persistunchanged, and then become extinct.Transitional forms are unknown.1

The well-known paleontologist Colin Pat-terson, a director of the Natural History Mu-seum in London where "evolution of thehorse" diagrams were on public display at thattime on the ground floor of the museum, saidthe following about the exhibition:

There have been an awful lot of stories,some more imaginative than others, aboutwhat the nature of that history [of life] re-ally is. The most famous example, still onexhibit downstairs, is the exhibit on horseevolution prepared perhaps fifty years ago.That has been presented as the literal truthin textbook after textbook. Now I think thatis lamentable, particularly when the peoplewho propose those kinds of stories maythemselves be aware of the speculative na-ture of some of that stuff.2

Then what is the basis for the scenario ofthe evolution of the horse? This scenario wasformulated by means of the deceitful chartsdevised by the sequential arrangement of fos-sils of distinct species that lived at vastly dif-ferent periods in India, South Africa, NorthAmerica, and Europe solely in accordancewith the rich power of evolutionists' imagina-tions. More than 20 charts of the evolution ofthe horse, which by the way are totally differ-ent from each other, have been proposed byvarious researchers. Thus, it is obvious thatevolutionists have reached no common agree-ment on these family trees. The only commonfeature in these arrangements is the belief thata dog-sized creature called "Eohippus", whichlived in the Eocene Period 55 million yearsago, was the ancestor of the horse (Equus).But, the supposed evolutionary lines from Eo-hippus to Equus are totally inconsistent.

The evolutionist science writer Gordon R.Taylor explains this little-acknowledged truthin his book The Great Evolution Mystery:

But perhaps the most serious weakness ofDarwinism is the failure of paleontologiststo find convincing phylogenies or se-quences of organisms demonstratingmajor evolutionary change... The horse isoften cited as the only fully worked-out ex-ample. But the fact is that the line from Eo-hippus to Equus is very erratic. It is allegedto show a continual increase in size, butthe truth is that some variants were smallerthan Eohippus, not larger. Specimens fromdifferent sources can be brought togetherin a convincing-looking sequence, butthere is no evidence that they were actuallyranged in this order in time.3

All these facts are strong evidence that thecharts of horse evolution, which are presentedas one of the most solid pieces of evidence forDarwinism, are nothing but fantastic and im-plausible tales.

1- Boyce Rensberger, Houston Chronicle, November

5, 1980, p.15

2- Colin Patterson, Harper's, February 1984, p.60

3- Gordon Rattray Taylor, The Great Evolution Mystery,

Abacus, Sphere Books, London, 1984, p. 230

The Myth of Horse Evolution

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Before going into the details of the myth of human evolution, weneed to mention the propaganda method that has convinced thegeneral public of the idea that half-man half-ape creatures once

lived in the past. This propaganda method makes use of "reconstructions"made in reference to fossils. Reconstruction can be explained as drawing apicture or constructing a model of a living thing based on a single bone-sometimes only a fragment-that has been unearthed. The "ape-men" wesee in newspapers, magazines, or films are all reconstructions.

Since fossils are usually fragmented and incomplete, any conjecturebased on them is likely to be completely speculative. As a matter of fact,the reconstructions (drawings or models) made by the evolutionists basedon fossil remains are prepared speculatively precisely to validate the evo-lutionary thesis. David R. Pilbeam, an eminent anthropologist from Har-vard, stresses this fact when he says: "At least in paleoanthropology, dataare still so sparse that theory heavily influences interpretations. Theorieshave, in the past, clearly reflected our current ideologies instead of theactual data".61 Since people are highly affected by visual information, thesereconstructions best serve the purpose of evolutionists, which is to con-vince people that these reconstructed creatures really existed in the past.

At this point, we have to highlight one particular point: Reconstruc-tions based on bone remains can only reveal the most general characteris-tics of the creature, since the really distinctive morphological features ofany animal are soft tissues which quickly vanish after death. Therefore,due to the speculative nature of the interpretation of the soft tissues, the re-constructed drawings or models become totally dependent on the imagi-nation of the person producing them. Earnst A. Hooten from HarvardUniversity explains the situation like this:

To attempt to restore the soft parts is an even more hazardous undertaking.The lips, the eyes, the ears, and the nasal tip leave no clues on the underlyingbony parts. You can with equal facility model on a Neanderthaloid skull

Deceptive Fossil



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In pictures and reconstructions, evolutionists deliberately give shape to features that

do not actually leave any fossil traces, such as the structure of the nose and lips, the

shape of the hair, the form of the eyebrows, and other bodily hair so as to support

evolution. They also prepare detailed pictures depicting these imaginary creatures

walking with their families, hunting, or in other instances of their daily lives. How-

ever, these drawings are all figments of the imagination and have no counterpart in

the fossil record.

Imaginary and Deceptive Drawings

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Deceptive Fossil Interpretations 83


N.Parker's reconstruction

N. Geographic, September 1960

Maurice Wilson's

drawingAppeared in Sunday Times

April 5, 1964

the features of a chimpanzee or the lineaments of a philosopher. These al-leged restorations of ancient types of man have very little if any scientificvalue and are likely only to mislead the public… So put not your trust in re-constructions.62

As a matter of fact, evolutionists invent such "preposterous stories"that they even ascribe different faces to the same skull. For example, thethree different reconstructed drawings made for the fossil named Aus-tralopithecus robustus (Zinjanthropus), are a famous example of suchforgery.

The biased interpretation of fossils and outright fabrication of manyimaginary reconstructions are an indication of how frequently evolution-ists have recourse to tricks. Yet these seem innocent when compared to thedeliberate forgeries that have been perpetrated in the history of evolution.

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There is no concrete fossil evidence to support the "ape-man" image,which is unceasingly promulgated by the media and evolutionistacademic circles. With brushes in their hands, evolutionists pro-

duce imaginary creatures, nevertheless, the fact that these drawings corre-spond to no matching fossils constitutes a serious problem for them. Oneof the interesting methods they employ to overcome this problem is to"produce" the fossils they cannot find. Piltdown Man, which may be thebiggest scandal in the history of science, is a typical example of thismethod.

Piltdown Man: An Orang-utan Jaw and a Human Skull!In 1912, a well-known doctor and amateur paleoanthropologist

named Charles Dawson came out with the assertion that he had found ajawbone and a cranial fragment in a pit in Piltdown, England. Even thoughthe jawbone was more ape-like, the teeth and the skull were like a man's.These specimens were labelled the "Piltdown man". Alleged to be 500,000years old, they were displayed as an absolute proof of human evolution inseveral museums. For more than 40 years, many scientific articles werewritten on "Piltdown man", many interpretations and drawings weremade, and the fossil was presented as important evidence for human evo-lution. No fewer than 500 doctoral theses were written on the subject.63

While visiting the British Museum in 1921, leading American paleoanthro-pologist Henry Fairfield Osborn said "We have to be reminded over andover again that Nature is full of paradoxes" and proclaimed Piltdown "adiscovery of transcendant importance to the prehistory of man".64

In 1949, Kenneth Oakley from the British Museum's Paleontology De-partment, attempted to use "fluorine testing", a new test used for deter-mining the date of fossils. A trial was made on the fossil of the Piltdownman. The result was astonishing. During the test, it was realised that the

Evolution Forgeries


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Pieces from ahuman skull

The fossils are unearthed byCharles Dawson and given toSir Arthur Smith Woodward.

Pieces are recon-structed to form thefamous skull.

Based on the reconstructedskull, variousdrawings andskulptures aremade, numer-ous articles andcommentariesare written. Theoriginal skull isdemonstratedin the BritishMuseum.

After 40 years ofits discovery, thePiltdown fossil isshown to be a hoax by a group ofresearchers.





The Story of a Hoax

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jawbone of Piltdown Man did not contain any fluorine. This indicated thatit had remained buried no more than a few years. The skull, which con-tained only a small amount of fluorine, showed that it was not older thana few thousand years old.

It was determined that the teeth in the jawbone belonging to anorangutan, had been worn down artificially and that the "primitive" toolsdiscovered with the fossils were simple imitations that had been sharp-ened with steel implements.65 In the detailed analysis completed byJoseph Weiner, this forgery was revealed to the public in 1953. The skullbelonged to a 500-year-old man, and the jaw bone belonged to a re-cently deceased ape! The teeth had been specially arranged in a particularway and added to the jaw, and the molar surfaces were filed in order to re-semble those of a man. Then all these pieces were stained with potassiumdichromate to give them an old appearance. These stains began to disap-pear when dipped in acid. Sir Wilfred Le Gros Clark, who was in the teamthat uncovered the forgery, could not hide his astonishment at this situa-tion and said: "The evidences of artificial abrasion immediately sprangto the eye. Indeed so obvious did they seem it may well be asked-howwas it that they had escaped notice before?"66 In the wake of all this, "Pilt-down man" was hurriedly removed from the British Museum where ithad been displayed for more than 40 years.

Nebraska Man: A Pig's ToothIn 1922, Henry Fairfield Osborn, the director of the American Mu-

seum of Natural History, declared that he had found a fossil molar toothbelonging to the Pliocene period in western Nebraska near Snake Brook.This tooth allegedly bore common characteristics of both man and ape. Anextensive scientific debate began surrounding this fossil, which came to becalled "Nebraska man", in which some interpreted this tooth as belongingto Pithecanthropus erectus, while others claimed it was closer to human be-ings. Nebraska man was also immediately given a "scientific name", Hes-peropithecus haroldcooki.

Many authorities gave Osborn their support. Based on this singletooth, reconstructions of the Nebraska man's head and body weredrawn. Moreover, Nebraska man was even pictured along with his wifeand children, as a whole family in a natural setting.

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Evolution Forgeries 87

All of these scenarios were developed from just one tooth. Evolution-ist circles placed such faith in this "ghost man" that when a researchernamed William Bryan opposed these biased conclusions relying on a sin-gle tooth, he was harshly criticised.

In 1927, other parts of the skeleton were also found. According tothese newly discovered pieces, the tooth belonged neither to a man nor toan ape. It was realised that it belonged to an extinct species of wild Ameri-can pig called Prosthennops. William Gregory entitled the article publishedin Science in which he announced the truth, "Hesperopithecus: ApparentlyNot an ape Nor a man".67 Then all the drawings of Hesperopithecus harold-cooki and his "family" were hurriedly removed from evolutionary litera-ture.

Ota Benga: The African In The CageAfter Darwin advanced the claim with his book The Descent of Man

that man evolved from ape-like living beings, he started to seek fossils tosupport this contention. However, some evolutionists believed that "half-man half-ape" creatures were to be found not only in the fossil record, butalso alive in various parts of the world. In the early 20th century, these pur-suits for "living transitional links" led to unfortunate incidents, one of thecruellest of which is the story of a Pygmy by the name of Ota Benga.

Ota Benga was captured in 1904 by an evolutionist researcher in theCongo. In his own tongue, his name meant "friend". He had a wife and twochildren. Chained and caged like an animal, he was taken to the USAwhere evolutionist scientists displayed him to the public in the St LouisWorld Fair along with other ape species and introduced him as "the closest

The picture on the left wasdrawn on the basis of a sin-gle tooth and it was pub-lished in the IllustratedLondon News magazine onJuly 24, 1922. However, theevolutionists were extremelydisappointed when it was re-vealed that this tooth be-longed neither to an ape-likecreature nor to a man, butrather to an extinct pigspecies.

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transitional link to man". Twoyears later, they took him to theBronx Zoo in New York andthere they exhibited him underthe denomination of "ancient an-cestors of man" along with a fewchimpanzees, a gorilla namedDinah, and an orang-utan calledDohung. Dr William T. Horna-day, the zoo's evolutionist direc-tor gave long speeches on howproud he was to have this excep-tional "transitional form" in hiszoo and treated caged Ota Bengaas if he were an ordinary animal.Unable to bear the treatment hewas subjected to, Ota Bengaeventually committed suicide.68

Piltdown Man, NebraskaMan, Ota Benga... These scan-dals demonstrate that evolutionist scientists do not hesitate to employ anykind of unscientific method to prove their theory. Bearing this point inmind, when we look at the other so-called evidence of the "human evolu-tion" myth, we confront a similar situation. Here there are a fictional storyand an army of volunteers ready to try everything to verify this story.


OTA BENGA: "The pygmy in the zoo"

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In previous chapters, we saw that there are no mechanisms in nature tolead the living beings to evolve and that living species came into exis-tence not as the result of an evolutionary process, but rather emerged

all of a sudden in their present perfect structure. That is, they were createdindividually. Therefore, it is obvious that "human evolution", too, is a storythat has never taken place.

What, then, do the evolutionists propose as the basis for this story?This basis is the existence of plenty of fossils on which the evolution-

ists are able to build up imaginary interpretations. Throughout history,more than 6,000 ape species have lived and most of them have become ex-tinct. Today, only 120 ape species live on the earth. These approximately6,000 ape species, most of which are extinct, constitute a rich resource forthe evolutionists.

The evolutionists wrote the scenario of human evolution by arrang-ing some of the skulls that suited their purpose in an order from the small-est to the biggest and scattering the skulls of some extinct human racesamong them. According to this scenario, men and modern apes have com-mon ancestors. These creatures evolved in time and some of them becamethe apes of today while another group that followed another branch ofevolution became the men of today.

However, all the paleontological, anatomical and biological findingshave demonstrated that this claim of evolution is as fictitious and invalidas all the others. No sound or real evidence has been put forward to provethat there is a relationship between man and ape, except forgeries, distor-tions, and misleading drawings and comments.

The fossil record indicates to us that throughout history, men havebeen men and apes have been apes. Some of the fossils the evolutionistsclaim to be the ancestors of man, belong to human races that lived untilvery recently-about 10,000 years ago-and then disappeared. Moreover,

The Scenario of Human Evolution


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many human communities currently living have the same physical appear-ance and characteristics as these extinct human races, which the evolution-ists claim to be the ancestors of men. All these are clear proof that man hasnever gone through an evolutionary process at any period in history.

The most important of all is that there are numerous anatomical differ-ences between apes and men and none of them are of the kind to come intoexistence through an evolutionary process. "Bipedality" is one of them. Aswe will describe later on in detail, bipedality is peculiar to man and it is oneof the most important traits that distinguishes man from other animals.

The Imaginary Family Tree of ManThe Darwinist claim holds that modern man evolved from some kind

of ape-like creature. During this alleged evolutionary process, which issupposed to have started from 4 to 5 million years ago, it is claimed thatthere existed some "transitional forms" between modern man and his an-cestors. According to this completely imaginary scenario, the followingfour basic "categories" are listed:

1. Australopithecines (any of the various forms belonging to thegenus Australopithecus)

2. hom*o habilis3. hom*o erectus4. hom*o sapiensEvolutionists call the genus to which the alleged ape-like ancestors of

man belonged "Australopithecus", which means "southern ape". Australop-ithecus, which is nothing but an old type of ape that has become extinct, isfound in various different forms. Some of them are larger and stronglybuilt (robust), while others are smaller and delicate (gracile).

Evolutionists classify the next stage of human evolution as the genushom*o, that is "man". According to the evolutionist claim, the living thingsin the hom*o series are more developed than Australopithecus, and not verymuch different from modern man. The modern man of our day, that is, thespecies hom*o sapiens, is said to have formed at the latest stage of the evolu-tion of this genus hom*o.

Fossils like "Java Man", "Pekin Man", and "Lucy", which appear inthe media from time to time and are to be found in evolutionist publica-tions and textbooks, are included in one of the four groups listed above.


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Each of these groupings is also assumed to branch into species and sub-species, as the case may be.

Some suggested transitional forms of the past, such as Ramapithecus,had to be excluded from the imaginary human family tree after it was re-alised that they were ordinary apes.69

By outlining the links in the chain as "australopithecines > hom*o ha-bilis > hom*o erectus > hom*o sapiens", the evolutionists imply that each ofthese types is the ancestor of the next. However, recent findings by pale-oanthropologists have revealed that australopithecines, hom*o habilis andhom*o erectus existed in different parts of the world at the same time. More-over, some of those humans classified as hom*o erectus probably lived upuntil very modern times. In an article titled "Latest hom*o erectus of Java:Potential Contemporaneity with hom*o sapiens in Southeast Asia", it was re-ported in the journal Science that hom*o erectus fossils found in Java had"mean ages of 27 ± 2 to 53.3 ± 4 thousand years ago" and this "raise[s] thepossibility that H. erectus overlapped in time with anatomically modern

The first Ramapithecus fossil found: a miss-

ing jaw composed of two parts. (on the

right). The evolutionists daringly pictured

Ramapithecus, his family and the environ-

ment they lived in, by relying only on these



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humans (H. sapiens) in Southeast Asia"70

Furthermore, hom*o sapiens neandarthalensis and hom*o sapiens sapiens(modern man) also clearly co-existed. This situation apparently indicatesthe invalidity of the claim that one is the ancestor of the other.

Intrinsically, all findings and scientific research have revealed that thefossil record does not suggest an evolutionary process as evolutionists pro-pose. The fossils, which evolutionists claim to be the ancestors of humans, infact belong either to different human races, or else to species of ape.

Then which fossils are human and which ones are apes? Is it ever pos-sible for any one of them to be considered a transitional form? In order tofind the answers, let us have a closer look at each category.

Australopithecus: An Ape SpeciesThe first category, the genus Australopithecus, means "southern ape",

as we have said. It is assumed that these creatures first appeared in Africaabout 4 million years ago, and lived until 1 million years ago. There are anumber of different species among the astralopithecines. Evolutionists as-sume that the oldest Australopithecus species is A. Afarensis. After thatcomes A. Africanus, and then A. Robustus, which has relatively biggerbones. As for A. Boisei, some researchers accept it as a different species, andothers as a sub-species of A. Robustus.

All of the Australopithecus species are extinct apes that resemblethe apes of today. Their cranial capacities are the same or smaller than thechimpanzees of our day. There are projecting parts in their hands and feetwhich they used to climb trees, just like today's chimpanzees, and theirfeet are built for grasping to hold onto branches. They are short (maximum130 cm. (51 in.)) and just like today's chimpanzees, male Australopithecus islarger than the female. Many other characteristics-such as the details intheir skulls, the closeness of their eyes, their sharp molar teeth, theirmandibular structure, their long arms, and their short legs-constitute evi-dence that these creatures were no different from today's ape.

However, evolutionists claim that, although australopithecines havethe anatomy of apes, unlike apes, they walked upright like humans.

This claim that australopithecines walked upright is a view that hasbeen held by paleoanthropologists such as Richard Leakey and Donald C.Johanson for decades. Yet many scientists who have carried out a great deal


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of research on the skeletal structures of australopithecines have proved theinvalidity of that argument. Extensive research done on various Australop-ithecus specimens by two world-renowned anatomists from England andthe USA, Lord Solly Zuckerman and Prof. Charles Oxnard, showed thatthese creatures did not walk upright in human manner. Having studied thebones of these fossils for a period of 15 years thanks to grants from theBritish government, Lord Zuckerman and his team of five specialistsreached the conclusion that australopithecines were only an ordinary apegenus and were definitely not bipedal, although Zuckerman is an evolu-tionist himself.71 Correspondingly, Charles E. Oxnard, who is another evo-lutionist famous for his research on the subject, also likened the skeletalstructure of australopithecines to that of modern orang-utans.72

Briefly, Australopithecines have no link with humans and they aremerely an extinct ape species.

hom*o Habilis: The Ape that was Presented as HumanThe great similarity between the skeletal and cranial structures of aus-

tralopithecines and chimpanzees, and the refutation of the claim that thesecreatures walked upright, have caused great difficulty for evolutionist pa-leoanthropologists. The reason is that, according to the imaginary evolu-tion scheme, hom*o erectus comes after Australopithecus. As the genus namehom*o (meaning "man") implies, hom*o erectus is a human species and itsskeleton is straight. Its cranial capacity is twice as large as that of Australo-pithecus. A direct transition from Australopithecus, which is a chimpanzee-like ape, to hom*o erectus, which has a skeleton no different from modernman's, is out of the question even according to evolutionist theory. There-fore, "links"-that is, "transitional forms"-are needed. The concept of hom*ohabilis arose from this necessity.

The classification of hom*o habilis was put forward in the 1960s by theLeakeys, a family of "fossil hunters". According to the Leakeys, this newspecies, which they classified as hom*o habilis, had a relatively large cranialcapacity, the ability to walk upright and to use stone and wooden tools.Therefore, it could have been the ancestor of man.

New fossils of the same species unearthed in the late 1980s, were tocompletely change this view. Some researchers, such as Bernard Wood andC. Loring Brace, who relied on those newly-found fossils, stated that hom*o

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The first fossil found inEthiopia, Hadar, which isto be supposed to belongto Australopithecus afer-ensis species: AL 288-1 or"Lucy". For a long time,evolutionists struggled toprove that Lucy couldwalk upright; but the latestresearch has definitely es-tablished that this animalwas an ordinary ape with abent stride.

The Australopithecus aferen-sis AL 333-105 fossil seenbelow belongs to a youngmember of this species. This iswhy the protrusion has not yetformed on his skull.

Australopithecus Aferensis: An Extinct Ape

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Above is seen theskull of Australop-ithecus aferensis AL444-2 fossil, andbelow is the skull of acontemporary ape.The obvious similar-ity verifies that A.aferensis is an ordi-nary ape specieswithout any "human-like" features.



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habilis (which means "skillful man", that is, man capable of using tools)should be classified as Australopithecus habilis, or "skillful southern ape", be-cause hom*o habilis had a lot of characteristics in common with the australop-ithecine apes. It had long arms, short legs and an ape-like skeletal structurejust like Australopithecus. Its fingers and toes were suitable for climbing.Their jaw was very similar to that of today's apes. Their 600 cc average cra-nial capacity is also an indication of the fact that they were apes. In short,hom*o habilis, which was presented as a different species by some evolution-ists, was in reality an ape species just like all the other australopithecines.

Research carried out in the years since Wood and Brace's work hasdemonstrated that hom*o habilis was indeed no different from Australopithe-cus. The skull and skeletal fossil OH62 found by Tim White showed thatthis species had a small cranial capacity, as well as long arms and shortlegs which enabled them to climb trees just like modern apes do.

The detailed analyses conducted by American anthropologist HollySmith in 1994 indicated that hom*o habilis was not hom*o, in other words,"human", at all, but rather unequivocally an "ape". Speaking of the analy-ses she made on the teeth of Australopithecus, hom*o habilis, hom*o erectusand hom*o neanderthalensis, Smith stated the following;

Restricting analysis of fossils to specimens satisfying these criteria, patternsof dental development of gracile australopithecines and hom*o Habilis re-main classified with African apes. Those of hom*o erectus and Neanderthalsare classified with humans.73

Within the same year, Fred Spoor, Bernard Wood and Frans Zonn-eveld, all specialists on anatomy, reached a similar conclusion through atotally different method. This method was based on the comparativeanalysis of the semi-circular canals in the inner ear of humans and apeswhich provided for sustaining balance. Spoor, Wood and Zonneveld con-cluded that:

Among the fossil hominids the earliest species to demonstrate the modernhuman morphology is hom*o erectus. In contrast, the semi-circular canal di-mensions in crania from southern Africa attributed to Australopithecus andParanthropus resemble those of the extant great apes. 74

Spoor, Wood and Zonneveld also studied a hom*o habilis specimen,namely Stw 53, and found out that "Stw 53 relied less on bipedal behaviorthan the australopithecines." This meant that the H. habilis specimen waseven more ape-like than the Australopithecus species. Thus they concluded


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"OH 7 hom*o habilis"seen on the down left

has been the fossilwhich best defined themandibular features of

the hom*o habilisspecies. This mandiblefossil has big incisory

teeth. Its molar teethare small. The shape ofthe mandible is square.

All these qualitiesmake this mandiblelook very similar to

that of today's apes. Inother words, hom*o

habilis' mandible oncemore confirms that

this being is actuallyan ape.

For a long time, evo-lutionists argued thatthe creatures theycalled hom*o habiliscould walk upright.They thought thatthey had found a linkstretching from apeto man. Yet, the newhom*o habilis fossilsTim White unearthedin 1986 and namedas OH 62 disprovedthis assertion. Thesefossil fragmentsshowed that hom*ohabilis had longarms and short legsjust like contempo-rary apes. This fossilput an end to the as-sertion proposingthat hom*o habiliswas a bipedal beingable to walk upright.In truth, hom*o ha-bilis was nothing butanother ape species.

hom*o Habilis: Another Extinct Ape

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that "Stw 53 represents an unlikely intermediate between the morpholo-gies seen in the australopithecines and H. erectus."

This finding yielded two important results:1. Fossils referred to as hom*o habilis did not actually belong to the

genus hom*o, i.e. humans, but to that of Australopithecus, i.e. apes. 2. Both hom*o habilis and Australopithecus were creatures that walked

stooped forward-that is to say, they had the skeleton of an ape. They haveno relation whatsoever to man.

hom*o Rudolfensis: The Face Wrongly JoinedThe term hom*o rudolfensis is the name given to a few fossil fragments

unearthed in 1972. The species supposedly represented by this fossil wasdesignated hom*o rudolfensis because these fossil fragments were found inthe vicinity of Lake Rudolf in Kenya. Most of the paleoanthropologists ac-cept that these fossils do not belong to a distinct species, but that the crea-ture called hom*o rudolfensis is in fact indistinguishable from hom*o habilis.

Richard Leakey, who unearthed the fossils, presented the skull desig-nated "KNM-ER 1470", which he said was 2.8 million years old, as thegreatest discovery in the history of anthropology. According to Leakey, thiscreature, which had a small cranial capacity like that of Australopithecus to-gether with a face similar to that of present-day humans, was the missinglink between Australopithecus and humans. Yet, after a short while, it wasrealised that the human-like face of the KNM-ER 1470 skull, which fre-quently appeared on the covers of scientific journals and popular sciencemagazines was the result of the incorrect assembly of the skull fragments,which may have been deliberate. Professor Tim Bromage, who conductsstudies on human facial anatomy, brought this to light by the help of com-puter simulations in 1992:

When it [KNM-ER 1470] was first reconstructed, the face was fitted to the cra-nium in an almost vertical position, much like the flat faces of modern hu-mans. But recent studies of anatomical relationships show that in life the facemust have jutted out considerably, creating an ape-like aspect, rather like thefaces of Australopithecus.75

The evolutionist paleoanthropologist J. E. Cronin states the followingon the matter:

... its relatively robustly constructed face, flattish naso-alveolar clivus, (recall-ing australopithecine dished faces), low maximum cranial width (on the tem-


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porals), strong canine juga and large molars (as indicated by remaining roots)are all relatively primitive traits which ally the specimen with members ofthe taxon A. africanus.76

C. Loring Brace from Michigan University came to the same conclu-sion. As a result of the analyses he conducted on the jaw and tooth struc-ture of skull 1470, he reported that "from the size of the palate and theexpansion of the area allotted to molar roots, it would appear that ER 1470retained a fully Australopithecus-sized face and dentition".77

Professor Alan Walker, a paleoanthropologist from Johns HopkinsUniversity who has done as much research on KNM-ER 1470 as Leakey,maintains that this creature should not be classified as a member of hom*o-i.e., as a human species-but rather should be placed in the Australopithecusgenus.78

In summary, classifications like hom*o habilis or hom*o rudolfensiswhich are presented as transitional links between the australopithecinesand hom*o erectus are entirely imaginary. It has been confirmed by many re-searchers today that these creatures are members of the Australopithecusseries. All of their anatomical features reveal that they are species of ape.

This fact has been further established by two evolutionist anthropolo-gists, Bernard Wood and Mark Collard, whose research was published in1999 in Science magazine. Wood and Collard explained that the hom*o ha-bilis and hom*o rudolfensis (Skull 1470) taxa are imaginary, and that the fos-sils assigned to these categories should be attributed to the genusAustralopithecus:

More recently, fossil species have been assigned to hom*o on the basis of ab-solute brain size, inferences about language ability and hand function, andretrodictions about their ability to fashion stone tools. With only a few excep-tions , the definition and use of the genus within human evolution, and thedemarcation of hom*o, have been treated as if they are unproblematic. But ...recent data, fresh interpretations of the existing evidence, and the limitationsof the paleoanthropological record invalidate existing criteria for attributingtaxa to hom*o.

...in practice fossil hominin species are assigned to hom*o on the basis of oneor more out of four criteria. ... It is now evident, however, that none of thesecriteria is satisfactory. The Cerebral Rubicon is problematic because absolutecranial capacity is of questionable biological significance. Likewise, there iscompelling evidence that language function cannot be reliably inferred fromthe gross appearance of the brain, and that the language-related parts of the

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brain are not as well localized as earlier studies had implied...

...In other words, with the hypodigms of H. habilis and H. rudolfensis as-signed to it, the genus hom*o is not a good genus. Thus, H. habilis and H.rudolfensis (or hom*o habilis sensu lato for those who do not subscribe to thetaxonomic subdivision of "early hom*o") should be removed from hom*o. Theobvious taxonomic alternative, which is to transfer one or both of the taxa toone of the existing early hominin genera, is not without problems, but werecommend that, for the time being, both H. Habilis and H. Rudolfensisshould be transferred to the genus Australopithecus.79

The conclusion of Wood and Collard corroborates the conclusion wehave maintained here:"Primitive human ancestors" do not exist in history.Creatures that are alleged to be so are actually apes that ought to be as-signed to the genus Australopithecus. The fossil record shows that there isno evolutionary link between these extinct apes and hom*o, i.e., humanspecies that suddenly appears in the fossil record.

hom*o Erectus and Thereafter: Human Beings According to the fanciful scheme suggested by evolutionists, the in-

ternal evolution of the hom*o genus is as follows: First hom*o erectus, thenso-called "archaic" hom*o sapiens and Neanderthal man (hom*o sapiens nean-derthalensis), and finally, Cro-Magnon man (hom*o sapiens sapiens). How-ever all these classifications are really only variations and unique races inthe human family. The difference between them is no greater than the dif-ference between an Inuit and an African or a pygmy and a European.

Let us first examine hom*o erectus, which is referred to as the most prim-itive human species. As the name implies, "hom*o erectus" means "man whowalks upright". Evolutionists have had to separate these fossils from earlierones by adding the qualification of "erectness", because all the available hom*oerectus fossils are straight to an extent not observed in any of the australop-ithecines or so-called hom*o habilis specimens. There is no difference be-tween the postcranial skeleton of modern man and that of hom*o erectus.

The primary reason for evolutionists' defining hom*o erectus as "primi-tive", is the cranial capacity of its skull (900-1,100 cc), which is smaller thanthe average modern man, and its thick eyebrow projections. However,there are many people living today in the world who have the same cra-nial capacity as hom*o erectus (pygmies, for instance) and other races haveprotruding eyebrows (Native Australians, for instance).


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KNM-WT 15000 or Turkana Child skeleton on theright, is probably the oldest and the most completehuman fossil ever found. Research made on this fos-sil which is said to be 1.6 million year old shows thatthis belongs to a 12 year old child who would be-come around 1.80 m. tall if he reached adolescence.This fossil which very much resembled to the Nean-derthal race, is one of the most remarkable evidenceinvalidating the story of human's evolution.The evolutionist Donald Johnson describes this fos-sil as follows: "He was tall and skinny. His bodyshape and the proportion of his limbs were the sameas the current Equator Africans. The sizes of hislimbs totally matched with that of the current whiteNorth American adults."

hom*o erectus means "uprightman". All the fossils includedin this species belong to par-ticular human races. Sincemost of the hom*o erectusfossils do not have a commoncharacteristic, it is quite hardto define these men accord-ing to their skulls. This is thereason why different evolu-tionist researchers havemade various classificationsand designations. Above leftis seen a skull which was

found in Koobi Fora, Africa in1975 which may generally de-fine hom*o erectus. Aboveright is a skull, hom*o ergasterKNM-ER 3733, which has theobscurities in question. The cranial capacities of allthese diverse hom*o erectusfossils surge between 900-1100 cc. These figures arewithin the limits of the con-temporary human cranial capacity.

hom*o erectus: An Ancient Human Race

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It is a commonly agreed-upon fact that differences in cranial capacitydo not necessarily denote differences in intelligence or abilities. Intelli-gence depends on the internal organisation of the brain, rather than on itsvolume.80

The fossils that have made hom*o erectus known to the entire world arethose of Peking man and Java man in Asia. However, in time it was realisedthat these two fossils are not reliable. Peking Man consists of some elementsmade of plaster whose originals have been lost, and Java Man is "composed"of a skull fragment plus a pelvic bone that was found metres away from itwith no indication that these belonged to the same creature. This is why thehom*o erectus fossils found in Africa have gained such increasing importance.(It should also be noted that some of the fossils said to be hom*o erectus wereincluded under a second species named "hom*o ergaster" by some evolu-tionists. There is disagreement among the experts on this issue. We will treatall these fossils under the classification of hom*o erectus)

The most famous of the hom*o erectus specimens found in Africa is thefossil of "Narikotome hom*o erectus" or the "Turkana Boy" which was foundnear Lake Turkana in Kenya. It is confirmed that the fossil was that of a 12-year-old boy, who would have been 1.83 meters tall in adolescence. Theupright skeletal structure of the fossil is no different from that of modernman. The American paleoanthropologist Alan Walker said that he doubtedthat "the average pathologist could tell the difference between the fossilskeleton and that of a modern human."81 Concerning the skull, Walkerwrote that he laughed when he saw it because "it looked so much like aNeanderthal."82 As we will see in the next chapter, Neanderthals are amodern human race. Therefore, hom*o erectus is also a modern human race.

Even the evolutionist Richard Leakey states that the differences be-tween hom*o erectus and modern man are no more than racial variance:

One would also see differences in the shape of the skull, in the degree of pro-trusion of the face, the robustness of the brows and so on. These differencesare probably no more pronounced than we see today between the separategeographical races of modern humans. Such biological variation ariseswhen populations are geographically separated from each other for signifi-cant lengths of time.83

Professor William Laughlin from the University of Connecticut madeextensive anatomical examinations of Inuits and the people living on theAleut islands, and noticed that these people were extraordinarily similar to


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hom*o erectus. The conclusion Laughlin arrived at was that all these distinctraces were in fact different races of hom*o sapiens (modern man).

When we consider the vast differences that exist between remote groupssuch as Eskimos and Bushmen, who are known to belong to the singlespecies of hom*o sapiens, it seems justifiable to conclude that Sinanthropus [anerectus specimen] belongs within this same diverse species.84

It is now a more pronounced fact in the scientific community thathom*o erectus is a superfluous taxon, and that fossils assigned to the hom*oerectus class are actually not so different from hom*o sapiens as to be consid-ered a different species. In American Scientist, the discussions over thisissue and the result of a conference held on the subject in 2000 were sum-marised in this way:

Most of the participants at the Senckenberg conference got drawn into aflaming debate over the taxonomic status of hom*o erectus started by MilfordWolpoff of the University of Michigan, Alan Thorne of the University of Can-berra and their colleagues. They argued forcefully that hom*o erectus had novalidity as a species and should be eliminated altogether. All members of thegenus hom*o, from about 2 million years ago to the present, were one highlyvariable, widely spread species, hom*o sapiens, with no natural breaks or sub-divisions. The subject of the conference, hom*o erectus didn't exist.85

The conclusion reached by the scientists defending the abovemen-

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"Early humans were much smarter than we suspected..."News published in New Scientist on March 14th 1998 tells us that the humans called hom*o Erec-tus by evolutionists were practicing seamanship 700 thousand years ago. These humans, whohad enough knowledge and technology to build a vessel and possess a culture that made use ofsea transport, can hardly be called "primitive".


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tioned thesis can be summarised as "hom*o erectus is not a different speciesfrom hom*o sapiens, but rather a race within hom*o sapiens".

On the other hand, there is a huge gap between hom*o erectus, ahuman race, and the apes that preceded hom*o erectus in the "human evolu-tion" scenario, (Australopithecus, hom*o Habilis, and hom*o rudolfensis). Thismeans that the first men appeared in the fossil record suddenly and with-out any prior evolutionary history. There can be no clearer indication oftheir being created.

Yet, admitting this fact is totally against the dogmatic philosophy andideology of evolutionists. As a result, they try to portray hom*o erectus, atruly human race, as a half-ape creature. In their hom*o erectus reconstruc-tions, they tenaciously draw simian features. On the other hand, with sim-ilar drawing methods, they humanise apes like Australopithecus or hom*oHabilis. With this method, they seek to "approximate" apes and human be-ings and close the gap between these two distinct living classes.

NeanderthalsNeanderthals were human beings who suddenly appeared 100,000

years ago in Europe, and who disappeared, or were assimilated by mixingwith other races, quietly but quickly 35,000 years ago. Their only differ-ence from modern man is that their skeletons are more robust and theircranial capacity slightly bigger.

Neanderthals were a human race, a factwhich is admitted by almost everybody today.Evolutionists have tried very hard to presentthem as a "primitive species", yet all the findingsindicate that they were no different from a "ro-bust" man walking on the street today. A promi-nent authority on the subject, Erik Trinkaus, apaleoanthropologist from New Mexico Universitywrites:

Detailed comparisons of Neanderthal skeletal re-mains with those of modern humans have shownthat there is nothing in Neanderthal anatomythat conclusively indicates locomotor, manipula-tive, intellectual, or linguistic abilities inferior tothose of modern humans.86


FALSE MASKS: Although nodifferent from modern man,Neanderthals are still depictedas ape-like by evolutionists.

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Many contemporary researchers define Neanderthal man as a sub-species of modern man and call him "hom*o sapiens neandertalensis". Thefindings testify that Neanderthals buried their dead, fashioned musical in-struments, and had cultural affinities with the hom*o sapiens sapiens livingduring the same period. To put it precisely, Neanderthals are a "robust"human race that simply disappeared in time.

hom*o Sapiens Archaic, hom*o Heilderbergensisand Cro-Magnon Man

Archaic hom*o sapiens is the last step before contemporary man in theimaginary evolutionary scheme. In fact, evolutionists do not have much tosay about these fossils, as there are only very minor differences betweenthem and modern human beings. Some researchers even state that repre-sentatives of this race are still living today, and point to native Australiansas an example. Like hom*o sapiens (archaic), native Australians also havethick protruding eyebrows, an inward-inclined mandibular structure, anda slightly smaller cranial capacity.

The group characterised as hom*o heilderbergensis in evolutionist litera-ture is in fact the same as archaic hom*o sapiens. The reason why two differ-ent terms are used to define the same human racial type is thedisagreements among evolutionists. All the fossils included under thehom*o heidelbergensis classification suggest that people who were anatomi-cally very similar to modern Europeans lived 500,000 and even 740,000years ago, first in England and then in Spain.

It is estimated that Cro-Magnon man lived 30,000 years ago. He has adome-shaped cranium and a broad forehead. His cranium of 1,600 cc isabove the average for contemporary man. His skull has thick eyebrow pro-jections and a bony protrusion at the back that is characteristic of both Ne-anderthal man and hom*o erectus.

Although the Cro-Magnon is considered to be a European race, thestructure and volume of Cro-Magnon's cranium look very much like thoseof some races living in Africa and the tropics today. Relying on this similar-ity, it is estimated that Cro-Magnon was an archaic African race. Some otherpaleoanthropological finds have shown that the Cro-Magnon and the Nean-derthal races intermixed and laid the foundations for the races of our day.

As a result, none of these human beings were "primitive species".

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Neanderthals: A Robust People

Above is seen hom*o sapiens Nean-derthalensis, Amud 1 skull found in Is-rael. Neanderthal man is generallyknown to be robust yet short. However itis estimated that the owner of this fossilhad been 1.80 m. high. His cranial ca-pacity is the largest ever seen: 1740cc.Because of all these, this fossil isamong the important pieces of evidencedefinitely destroying the claims that Ne-anderthals were a primitive species.

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They were different human beings who lived in earlier times and either as-similated and mixed with other races, or became extinct and disappearedfrom history.

Species Living in the Same Age as Their AncestorsWhat we have investigated so far forms a clear picture: The scenario

of "human evolution" is a complete fiction. In order for such a family treeto represent the truth, a gradual evolution from ape to man must havetaken place and a fossil record of this process should be able to be found. Infact, however, there is a huge gap between apes and humans. Skeletalstructures, cranial capacities, and such criteria as walking upright or bentsharply forward distinguish humans from apes. (We already mentionedthat on the basis of recent research done in 1994 on the inner ear, Australo-pithecus and hom*o habilis were reclassified as apes, while hom*o erectus wasreclassified as a fully modern human.)

Another significant finding proving that there can be no family-treerelationship among these different species is that species that are presentedas ancestors of others in fact lived concurrently. If, as evolutionists claim,Australopithecus changed into hom*o habilis, which, in turn, turned intohom*o erectus, the periods they lived in should necessarily have followedeach other. However, there is no such chronological order to be seen in thefossil record.

According to evolutionist estimates, Australopithecus lived from 4 mil-lion up until 1 million years ago. The creatures classified as hom*o habilis,on the other hand, are thought to have lived until 1.7 to 1.9 million yearsago. hom*o rudolfensis, which is said to have been more "advanced" thanhom*o habilis, is known to be as old as from 2.5 to 2.8 million years! That isto say, hom*o rudolfensis is nearly 1 million years older than hom*o habilis, ofwhich it is alleged to have been the "ancestor". On the other hand, the ageof hom*o erectus goes as far back as 1.6-1.8 million years ago, which meansthat hom*o erectus appeared on the earth in the same time frame as its so-called ancestor, hom*o habilis.

Alan Walker confirms this fact by stating that "there is evidence fromEast Africa for late-surviving small Australopithecus individuals thatwere contemporaneous first with H. Habilis, then with H. erectus."87

Louis Leakey has found fossils of Australopithecus, hom*o habilis and hom*o

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An interesting fossil show-

ing that the Neanderthals

had knowledge of clothing:

A needle 26,000 years old.

(D. Johanson, B. Edgar From

Lucy to Language, p. 99)

erectus almost next to each other in the Olduvai Gorge region of Tanzania,in the Bed II layer.88

There is definitely no such family tree. Stephen Jay Gould, who was apaleontologist from Harvard University, explained this deadlock faced byevolution, although he was an evolutionist himself:

What has become of our ladder if there are three coexisting lineages of ho-minids (A. africanus, the robust australopithecines, and H. habilis), noneclearly derived from another? Moreover, none of the three display any evolu-tionary trends during their tenure on earth.89

When we move on from hom*o erectus to hom*o sapiens, we again see thatthere is no family tree to talk about. There is evidence showing that hom*oerectus and archaic hom*o sapiens continued living up to 27,000 years andeven as recently as 10,000 years before our time. In the Kow Swamp in Aus-tralia, some 13,000-year-old hom*o erectus skulls have been found. On the is-land of Java, hom*o erectus remains were found that are 27,000 years old.90

The Secret History of hom*o SapiensThe most interesting and significant fact that nullifies the very basis of

the imaginary family tree of evolutionary theory is the unexpectedly an-cient history of modern man. Paleoanthropological findings reveal thathom*o sapiens people who looked exactly like us were living as long as 1 mil-lion years ago.

It was Louis Leakey, the famous evolutionist paleoanthropologist,who discovered the first findings on this subject. In 1932, in the Kanjera re-gion around Lake Victoria in Kenya, Leakey found several fossils that be-longed to the Middle Pleistocene and that were no different from modern

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man. However, the Middle Pleistocene was a million years ago.91 Sincethese discoveries turned the evolutionary family tree upside down, theywere dismissed by some evolutionist paleoanthropologists. Yet Leakey al-ways contended that his estimates were correct.

Just when this controversy was about to be forgotten, a fossil un-earthed in Spain in 1995 revealed in a very remarkable way that the historyof hom*o sapiens was much older than had been assumed. The fossil in ques-tion was uncovered in a cave called Gran Dolina in the Atapuerca region ofSpain by three Spanish paleoanthropologists from the University of Madrid.The fossil revealed the face of an 11-year-old boy who looked entirely likemodern man. Yet, it had been 800,000 years since the child died. Discovermagazine covered the story in great detail in its December 1997 issue.

This fossil even shook the convictions of Juan Luis Arsuaga Ferreras,who lead the Gran Dolina excavation. Ferreras said:

We expected something big, something large, something inflated-you know,something primitive. Our expectation of an 800,000-year-old boy was some-thing like Turkana Boy. And what we found was a totally modern face.... Tome this is most spectacular-these are the kinds of things that shake you. Find-ing something totally unexpected like that. Not finding fossils; finding fossilsis unexpected too, and it's okay. But the most spectacular thing is findingsomething you thought belonged to the present,in the past. It's like finding something like-like atape recorder in Gran Dolina. That would bevery surprising. We don't expect cassettes andtape recorders in the Lower Pleistocene. Find-ing a modern face 800,000 years ago-it's thesame thing. We were very surprised when wesaw it.92

The fossil highlighted the fact that the historyof hom*o sapiens had to be extended back to 800,000years ago. After recovering from the initial shock,the evolutionists who discovered the fossil de-cided that it belonged to a different species, be-cause according to the evolutionary family tree,hom*o sapiens did not live 800,000 years ago. There-fore, they made up an imaginary species called"hom*o antecessor" and included the Atapuercaskull under this classification.

The Scenario of Human Evolution 109

One of the most popular

periodicals of the evolu-

tionist literature, Discover,

put the 800 thousand-year-

old human face on its cover

with the evolutionists'

question "Is this the face of

our past?".

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A Hut 1.7 Million Years Old

There have been many findings demon-strating that hom*o sapiens dates back even ear-lier than 800,000 years. One of them is adiscovery by Louis Leakey in the early 1970s inOlduvai Gorge. Here, in the Bed II layer, Leakeydiscovered that Australopithecus, hom*o Habilisand hom*o erectus species had co-existed at thesame time. What is even more interesting was astructure Leakey found in the same layer (BedII). Here, he found the remains of a stone hut.The unusual aspect of the event was that thisconstruction, which is still used in some parts of Africa, could only havebeen built by hom*o sapiens! So, according to Leakey's findings, Australop-ithecus, hom*o habilis, hom*o erectus and modern man must have co-existedapproximately 1.7 million years ago.93 This discovery must surely invali-date the evolutionary theory that claims that modern men evolved fromape-like species such as Australopithecus.

Footprints of Modern Man, 3.6 Million Years Old!

Indeed, some other discoveries trace the origins of modern man backto 1.7 million years ago. One of these important finds is the footprintsfound in Laetoli, Tanzania, by Mary Leakey in 1977. These footprints werefound in a layer that was calculated to be 3.6 million years old, and moreimportantly, they were no different from the footprints that a contempo-rary man would leave.

The footprints found by Mary Leakey were later examined by a num-ber of famous paleoanthropologists, such as Donald Johanson and TimWhite. The results were the same. White wrote:

Make no mistake about it, ...They are like modern human footprints. If onewere left in the sand of a California beach today, and a four-year old wereasked what it was, he would instantly say that somebody had walked there.He wouldn't be able to tell it from a hundred other prints on the beach, norwould you.94

After examining the footprints, Louis Robbins from the University ofNorth California made the following comments:


Findings of a 1.7 million-year-old hut shocked the scientific community. It looked like thehuts used by some Africans


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The arch is raised-the smaller individual had a higher arch than I do-and thebig toe is large and aligned with the second toe… The toes grip the groundlike human toes. You do not see this in other an-imal forms.95

Examinations of the morphological form ofthe footprints showed time and again that theyhad to be accepted as the prints of a human, andmoreover, a modern human (hom*o sapiens).Russell Tuttle, who also examined the footprintswrote:

A small barefoot hom*o sapiens could havemade them... In all discernible morphologicalfeatures, the feet of the individuals that madethe trails are indistinguishable from those ofmodern humans.96

Impartial examinations of the footprints re-vealed their real owners. In reality, these foot-prints consisted of 20 fossilised footprints of a10-year-old modern human and 27 footprints of an even younger one.They were certainly modern people like us.

This situation put the Laetoli footprints at the centre of discussions foryears. Evolutionist paleoanthropologists desperately tried to come up withan explanation, as it was hard for them to accept the fact that a modernman had been walking on the earth 3.6 million years ago. During the1990s, the following "explanation" started to take shape: The evolutionistsdecided that these footprints must have been left by an Australopithecus,because according to their theory, it was impossible for a hom*o species tohave existed 3.6 years ago. However, Russell H. Tuttle wrote the followingin an article in 1990:

In sum, the 3.5-million-year-old footprint traits at Laetoli site G resemblethose of habitually unshod modern humans. None of their features suggestthat the Laetoli hominids were less capable bipeds than we are. If the G foot-prints were not known to be so old, we would readily conclude that therehad been made by a member of our genus, hom*o... In any case, we shouldshelve the loose assumption that the Laetoli footprints were made by Lucy'skind, Australopithecus afarensis.97

To put it briefly, these footprints that were supposed to be 3.6 millionyears old could not have belonged to Australopithecus. The only reason

The Scenario of Human Evolution 111

The Laetoli footprints be-longed to modern humans,however they were millions

of years old.

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why the footprints were thought to have been left by members of Australo-pithecus was the 3.6-million-year-old volcanic layer in which the footprintswere found. The prints were ascribed to Australopithecus purely on the as-sumption that humans could not have lived so long ago.

These interpretations of the Laetoli footprints demonstrate one im-portant fact. Evolutionists support their theory not based on scientific find-ings, but in spite of them. Here we have a theory that is blindly defendedno matter what, with all new findings that cast the theory into doubt beingeither ignored or distorted to support the theory.

Briefly, the theory of evolution is not science, but a dogma kept alivedespite science.

The Bipedalism Impasse of Evolution Apart from the fossil record that we have dealt with so far, unbridge-

able anatomical gaps between men and apes also invalidate the fiction ofhuman evolution. One of these has to do with the manner of walking.

Human beings walk upright on two feet. This is a very special form oflocomotion not seen in any other mammalian species. Some other animalsdo have a limited ability to move when they stand on their two hind feet.Animals like bears and monkeys can move in this way only rarely, such aswhen they want to reach a source of food, and even then only for a shorttime. Normally, their skeletons lean forward and they walk on all fours.

Well, then, has bipedalism evolved from the quadrupedal gait ofapes, as evolutionists claim?

Of course not. Research has shown that the evolution of bipedalism

Another example showing the invalidityof the imaginary family tree devised byevolutionists: a modern human (hom*osapiens) mandible aged 2.3 million years. This mandible coded A.L. 666-1was unearthed in Hadar, Ethiopia. Evolutionist publications seek to glossit over by referring to it as "a very star-tling discovery"... (D. Johanson, BlakeEdgar, From Lucy to Language, p.169)

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never occurred, nor is it possible for it to have done so. First of all, bipedal-ism is not an evolutionary advantage. The way in which monkeys move ismuch easier, faster, and more efficient than man's bipedal stride. Man canneither move by jumping from tree to tree without descending to theground, like a chimpanzee, nor run at a speed of 125 km per hour, like acheetah. On the contrary, since man walks on two feet, he moves muchmore slowly on the ground. For the same reason, he is one of the most un-protected of all species in nature in terms of movement and defence. Ac-cording to the logic of evolution, monkeys should not have evolved toadopt a bipedal stride; humans should instead have evolved to becomequadrupedal.

Another impasse of the evolutionary claim is that bipedalism doesnot serve the "gradual development" model of Darwinism. This model,which constitutes the basis of evolution, requires that there should be a"compound" stride between bipedalism and quadrupedalism. However,with the computerised research he conducted in 1996, the English paleoan-thropologist Robin Crompton, showed that such a "compound" stride wasnot possible. Crompton reached the following conclusion: A living beingcan either walk upright, or on all fours.98 A type of stride between the twois impossible because it would involve excessive energy consumption.This is why a half-bipedal being cannot exist.

The immense gap between man and ape is not limited solely tobipedalism. Many other issues still remain unexplained, such as brain ca-pacity, the ability to talk, and so on. Elaine Morgan, an evolutionist pale-oanthropologist, makes the following confession in relation to this matter:

Four of the most outstanding mysteries about humans are: 1) why do theywalk on two legs? 2) why have they lost their fur? 3) why have they devel-oped such large brains? 4) why did they learn to speak?The orthodox answers to these questions are: 1) 'We do not yet know'; 2) 'Wedo not yet know'; 3) 'We do not yet know'; 4) 'We do not yet know'. The list ofquestions could be considerably lengthened without affecting the monotonyof the answers.99

Evolution: An Unscientific Faith

Lord Solly Zuckerman is one of the most famous and respected scien-tists in the United Kingdom. For years, he studied the fossil record and con-

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ducted many detailed investigations. He was elevated to the peerage for hiscontributions to science. Zuckerman is an evolutionist. Therefore, his com-ments on evolution can not be regarded as ignorant or prejudiced. Afteryears of research on the fossils included in the human evolution scenariohowever, he reached the conclusion that there is no truth to the family tree inthat is put forward.

Zuckerman also advanced an interesting concept of the "spectrum ofthe sciences", ranging from those he considered scientific to those he con-sidered unscientific. According to Zuckerman's spectrum, the most "scien-tific"-that is, depending on concrete data-fields are chemistry and physics.After them come the biological sciences and then the social sciences. At thefar end of the spectrum, which is the part considered to be most "unscien-tific", are "extra-sensory perception"-concepts such as telepathy and the"sixth sense"-and finally "human evolution". Zuckerman explains his rea-soning as follows:

We then move right off the register of objective truth into those fields of pre-sumed biological science, like extrasensory perception or the interpretationof man's fossil history, where to the faithful anything is possible - andwhere the ardent believer is sometimes able to believe several contradictorythings at the same time.100

Robert Locke, the editor of Discovering Archeology, an important pub-lication on the origins of man, writes in that journal, "The search forhuman ancestors gives more heat than light", quoting the confession of thefamous evolutionist paleoantropologist Tim White:

We're all frustrated by "all the questions we haven't been able to answer." 101

Locke's article reviews the impasse of the theory of evolution on the ori-

Recent researches re-

veal that it is impossible

for the bent ape skeleton

fit for quadrupedal stride

to evolve into upright

human skeleton fit for

bipedal stride.

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gins of man and the groundlessness of the propaganda spread about this sub-ject:

Perhaps no area of science is more contentious than the search for human ori-gins. Elite paleontologists disagree over even the most basic outlines of thehuman family tree. New branches grow amid great fanfare, only to witherand die in the face of new fossil finds.102

The same fact was also recently accepted by Henry Gee, the editor ofthe well-known journal Nature. In his book In Search of Deep Time, pub-lished in 1999, Gee points out that all the evidence for human evolution"between about 10 and 5 million years ago-several thousand generationsof living creatures-can be fitted into a small box." He concludes that con-ventional theories of the origin and development of human beings are "acompletely human invention created after the fact, shaped to accord withhuman prejudices" and adds:

To take a line of fossils and claim that they represent a lineage is not a scientifichypothesis that can be tested, but an assertion that carries the same validity asbedtime story-amusing, perhaps even instructive, but not scientific.103

What, then, is the reason that make so many scientists so tenaciousabout this dogma? Why have they been trying so hard to keep their theoryalive, at the cost of having to admit countless conflicts and discarding theevidence they have found?

The only answer is their being afraid of the fact they will have to face incase of abandoning the theory of evolution. The fact they will have to facewhen they abandon evolution is that God has created man. However, con-sidering the presuppositions they have and the materialistic philosophythey believe in, creation is an unacceptable concept for evolutionists.

For this reason, they deceive themselves, as well as the world, byusing the media with which they co-operate. If they cannot find the neces-sary fossils, they "fabricate" them either in the form of imaginary picturesor fictitious models and try to give the impression that there indeed existfossils verifying evolution. A part of mass media who share their material-istic point of view also try to deceive the public and instil the story of evo-lution in people's subconscious.

No matter how hard they try, the truth is evident: Man has come intoexistence not through an evolutionary process but by God's creation.Therefore, he is responsible to Him however unwilling he may be to as-sume this responsibility.

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In previous sections of this book, we have shown how the fossil recordinvalidates the theory of evolution. In point of fact, there was no needfor us to relate any of that, because the theory of evolution collapses

long before one gets to any claims about the evidence of fossils. The subjectthat renders the theory meaningless from the very outset is the question ofhow life first appeared on earth.

When it addresses this question, evolutionary theory claims that lifestarted with a cell that formed by chance. According to this scenario, fourbillion years ago various lifeless chemical compounds underwent a reac-tion in the primordial atmosphere on the earth in which the effects of thun-derbolts and atmospheric pressure led to the formation of the first livingcell.

The first thing that must be said is that the claim that inanimate mate-rials can come together to form life is an unscientific one that has not beenverified by any experiment or observation. Life is only generated from life.Each living cell is formed by the replication of another cell. No one in theworld has ever succeeded in forming a living cell by bringing inanimatematerials together, not even in the most advanced laboratories.

The theory of evolution claims that a living cell-which cannot be pro-duced even when all the power of the human intellect, knowledge andtechnology are brought to bear-nevertheless managed to form by chanceunder primordial conditions of the earth. In the following pages, we willexamine why this claim is contrary to the most basic principles of scienceand reason.

The Tale of the "Cell Produced by Chance"

If one believes that a living cell can come into existence by coinci-dence, then there is nothing to prevent one from believing a similar storythat we will relate below. It is the story of a town:

One day, a lump of clay, pressed between the rocks in a barren land,

The Molecular

Impasse of Evolution


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The Molecular Impasse of Evolution 117

becomes wet after it rains. The wet clay dries and hardens when the sunrises, and takes on a stiff, resistant form. Afterwards, these rocks, whichalso served as a mould, are somehow smashed into pieces, and then a neat,well shaped, and strong brick appears. This brick waits under the samenatural conditions for years for a similar brick to be formed. This goes onuntil hundreds and thousands of the same bricks have been formed in thesame place. However, by chance, none of the bricks that were previouslyformed are damaged. Although exposed to storm, rain, wind, scorchingsun, and freezing cold for thousands of years, the bricks do not crack,break up, or get dragged away, but wait there in the same place with thesame determination for other bricks to form.

When the number of bricks is adequate, they erect a building by beingarranged sideways and on top of each other, having been randomlydragged along by the effects of natural conditions such as winds, storms,or tornadoes. Meanwhile, materials such as cement or soil mixtures formunder "natural conditions", with perfect timing, and creep between thebricks to clamp them to each other. While all this is happening, iron oreunder the ground is shaped under "natural conditions" and lays the foun-dations of a building that is to be formed with these bricks. At the end ofthis process, a complete building rises with all its materials, carpentry, andinstallations intact.

Of course, a building does not only consist of foundations, bricks, andcement. How, then, are the other missing materials to be obtained? The an-swer is simple: all kinds of materials that are needed for the construction ofthe building exist in the earth on which it is erected. Silicon for the glass, cop-per for the electric cables, iron for the columns, beams, water pipes, etc. allexist under the ground in abundant quantities. It takes only the skill of "nat-ural conditions" to shape and place these materials inside the building. Allthe installations, carpentry, and accessories are placed among the brickswith the help of the blowing wind, rain, and earthquakes. Everything hasgone so well that the bricks are arranged so as to leave the necessary win-dow spaces as if they knew that something called glass would be formedlater on by natural conditions. Moreover, they have not forgotten to leavesome space to allow the installation of water, electricity and heating systems,which are also later to be formed by coincidence. Everything has gone sowell that "coincidences" and "natural conditions" produce a perfect design.

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The theory of evo-lution faces nogreater crisis than

on the point of explain-ing the emergence oflife. The reason is thatorganic molecules areso complex that their

formation cannot possibly be ex-plained as being coincidental and itis manifestly impossible for an or-ganic cell to have been formed bychance.

Evolutionists confronted thequestion of the origin of life in thesecond quarter of the 20th century.One of the leading authorities of thetheory of molecular evolution, theRussian evolutionist Alexander I.Oparin, said this in his book The Ori-gin of Life, which was published in1936:

Unfortunately,the origin ofthe cell re-mains a ques-tion which isactually thedarkest pointof the com-plete evolu-tion theory.1

Since Oparin, evolutionists haveperformed countless experiments,conducted research, and made ob-servations to prove that a cell couldhave been formed by chance. How-ever, every such attempt only madeclearer the complex design of thecell and thus refuted the evolution-ists' hypotheses even more. Profes-

sor Klaus Dose, the president of theInstitute of Biochemistry at the Uni-versity of Johannes Gutenberg,states:

More than 30 years of experimen-tation on the origin of life in thefields of chemical and molecularevolution have ledto a better percep-tion of the immen-sity of the problemof the origin of lifeon Earth ratherthan to its solution.At present all dis-cussions on princi-pal theories andexperiments in thefield either end in stalemate or ina confession of ignorance.2

The following statement by thegeochemist Jeffrey Bada from SanDiego Scripps Institute makes clearthe helplessness of evolutionistsconcerning this impasse:

Today as we leave the twentiethcentury, we still face the biggestunsolved problem that we hadwhen we entered the twentiethcentury: How did life originate onEarth?3

Confessions from Evolutionists

Alexander Oparin:

Jeffrey Bada

1- Alexander I. Oparin, Origin of Life, (1936)

NewYork: Dover Publications, 1953 (Reprint),


2- Klaus Dose, "The Origin of Life: More Questions

Than Answers", Interdisciplinary Science Re-

views, Vol 13, No. 4, 1988, p. 348

3- Jeffrey Bada, Earth, February 1998, p. 40

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The Molecular Impasse of Evolution 119

If you have managed to sustain your belief in this story so far, thenyou should have no trouble surmising how the town's other buildings,plants, highways, sidewalks, substructures, communications, and trans-portation systems came about. If you possess technical knowledge and arefairly conversant with the subject, you can even write an extremely "scien-tific" book of a few volumes stating your theories about "the evolutionaryprocess of a sewage system and its uniformity with the present structures".You may well be honoured with academic awards for your clever studies,and may consider yourself a genius, shedding light on the nature of hu-manity.

The theory of evolution, which claims that life came into existence bychance, is no less absurd than our story, for, with all its operational sys-tems, and systems of communication, transportation and management, acell is no less complex than a city.

The Miracle in the Cell and the End of Evolution

The complex structure of the living cell was unknown in Darwin'sday and at the time, ascribing life to "coincidences and natural conditions"was thought by evolutionists to be convincing enough.

The technology of the 20th century has delved into the tiniest parti-cles of life and has revealed that the cell is the most complex systemmankind has ever confronted. Today we know that the cell contains powerstations producing the energy to be used by the cell, factories manufactur-ing the enzymes and hormones essential for life, a databank where all thenecessary information about all products to be produced is recorded, com-plex transportation systems and pipelines for carrying raw materials andproducts from one place to another, advanced laboratories and refineriesfor breaking down external raw materials into their useable parts, and spe-cialised cell membrane proteins to control the incoming and outgoing ma-terials. And these constitute only a small part of this incredibly complexsystem.

W. H. Thorpe, an evolutionist scientist, acknowledges that "The mostelementary type of cell constitutes a 'mechanism' unimaginably morecomplex than any machine yet thought up, let alone constructed, byman."104

A cell is so complex that even the high level of technology attained

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The cell is the most complex and most elegantly designed system man has ever

witnessed. Professor of biology Michael Denton, in his book entitled Evolution: A

Theory in Crisis, explains this complexity with an example:

"To grasp the reality of life as it has been revealed by molecular biology, we must

magnify a cell a thousand million times until it is twenty kilometers in diameter

and resembles a giant airship large enough to cover a great city like London or

New York. What we would then see would be an object of unparalelled complexity

and adaptive design. On the surface of the cell we would see millions of openings,

like port holes of a vast space ship, opening and closing to allow a continual

stream of materials to flow in and out. If we were to enter one of these openings

we would find ourselves in a world of supreme technology and bewildering com-

plexity... (a complexity) beyond our own creative capacities, a reality which is the

very antithesis of chance, which excels in every sense anything produced by the

intelligence of man..."

The Complexity of the Cell

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The Molecular Impasse of Evolution 121

today cannot produce one. No effort to create an artificial cell has ever metwith success. Indeed, all attempts to do so have been abandoned.

The theory of evolution claims that this system-which mankind, withall the intelligence, knowledge and technology at its disposal, cannot suc-ceed in reproducing-came into existence "by chance" under the conditionsof the primordial earth. To give another example, the probability of form-ing of a cell by chance is about the same as that of producing a perfect copyof a book following an explosion in a printing-house.

The English mathematician and astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle made asimilar comparison in an interview published in Nature magazine on No-vember 12, 1981. Although an evolutionist himself, Hoyle stated that thechance that higher life forms might have emerged in this way is compara-ble to the chance that a tornado sweeping through a junk-yard might as-semble a Boeing 747 from the materials therein.105 This means that it isnot possible for the cell to have come into being by coincidence, and there-fore it must definitely have been "created".

One of the basic reasons why the theory of evolution cannot explainhow the cell came into existence is the "irreducible complexity" in it. A liv-ing cell maintains itself with the harmonious co-operation of many or-ganelles. If only one of these organelles fails to function, the cell cannotremain alive. The cell does not have the chance to wait for unconsciousmechanisms like natural selection or mutation to permit it to develop.Thus, the first cell on earth was necessarily a complete cell possessing allthe required organelles and functions, and this definitely means that thiscell had to have been created.

Proteins Challenge Chance

So much for the cell, but evolution fails even to account for the build-ing-blocks of a cell. The formation, under natural conditions, of just onesingle protein out of the thousands of complex protein molecules makingup the cell is impossible.

Proteins are giant molecules consisting of smaller units called "aminoacids" that are arranged in a particular sequence in certain quantities andstructures. These units constitute the building blocks of a living protein.The simplest protein is composed of 50 amino acids, but there are somethat contain thousands.

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The crucial point is this. The absence, addition, or replacement of asingle amino acid in the structure of a protein causes the protein to becomea useless molecular heap. Every amino acid has to be in the right place andin the right order. The theory of evolution, which claims that life emergedas a result of chance, is quite helpless in the face of this order, since it is toowondrous to be explained by coincidence. (Furthermore the theory cannoteven substantiate the claim of the accidental formation of amino acids, aswill be discussed later.)

The fact that it is quite impossible for the functional structure of pro-teins to come about by chance can easily be observed even by simple prob-ability calculations that anybody can understand.

For instance, an average-sized protein molecule composed of 288amino acids, and contains twelve different types of amino acids can bearranged in 10300 different ways. (This is an astronomically huge number,consisting of 1 followed by 300 zeros.) Of all these possible sequences, onlyone forms the desired protein molecule. The rest of them are amino-acidchains that are either totally useless or else potentially harmful to livingthings.

In other words, the probability of the formation of only one proteinmolecule is "1 in 10300". The probability of this "1" to occur is practically nil.(In practice, probabilities smaller than 1 over 1050 are thought of as "zeroprobability").

Furthermore, a protein molecule of 288 amino acids is a rather modestone compared with some giant protein molecules consisting of thousandsof amino acids. When we apply similar probability calculations to thesegiant protein molecules, we see that even the word "impossible" is insuffi-cient to describe the true situation.

When we proceed one step further in the evolutionary scheme of life,we observe that one single protein means nothing by itself. One of thesmallest bacteria ever discovered, Mycoplasma hominis H39, contains 600"types" of proteins. In this case, we would have to repeat the probabilitycalculations we have made above for one protein for each of these 600 dif-ferent types of proteins. The result beggars even the concept of impossibil-ity.

Some people reading these lines who have so far accepted the theoryof evolution as a scientific explanation may suspect that these numbers are

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The Molecular Impasse of Evolution 123

exaggerated and do not reflect the true facts. That is not the case: these aredefinite and concrete facts. No evolutionist can object to these numbers.They accept that the probability of the coincidental formation of a singleprotein is "as unlikely as the possibility of a monkey writing the history ofhumanity on a typewriter without making any mistakes".106 However, in-stead of accepting the other explanation, which is creation, they go on de-fending this impossibility.

This situation is in fact acknowledged by many evolutionists. For ex-ample, Harold F. Blum, a prominent evolutionist scientist, states that "Thespontaneous formation of a polypeptide of the size of the smallestknown proteins seems beyond all probability." 107

Evolutionists claim that molecular evolution took place over a verylong period of time and that this made the impossible possible. Neverthe-less, no matter how long the given period may be, it is not possible foramino acids to form proteins by chance. William Stokes, an American geol-ogist, admits this fact in his book Essentials of Earth History, writing that theprobability is so small "that it would not occur during billions of years onbillions of planets, each covered by a blanket of concentrated watery so-lution of the necessary amino acids." 108

So what does all this mean? Perry Reeves, a professor of chemistry,answers the question:

When one examines the vast number of possible structures that could result

Proteins are the most vital ele-

ments for living things. They not

only combine to make up living

cells, but also play key roles in the

body chemistry. From protein syn-

thesis to hormonal communica-

tions, it is possible to see proteins

in action.

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from a simple random combination of amino acids in an evaporating primor-dial pond, it is mind-boggling to believe that life could have originated inthis way. It is more plausible that a Great Builder with a master plan wouldbe required for such a task.109

If the coincidental formation of even one of these proteins is impossi-ble, it is billions of times "more impossible" for some one million of thoseproteins to come together properly by chance and make up a complete cell.What is more, by no means does a cell consist of a mere heap of proteins. Inaddition to the proteins, a cell also includes nucleic acids, carbohydrates,lipids, vitamins, and many other chemicals such as electrolytes arrangedin a specific proportion, equilibrium, and design in terms of both structureand function. Each of these elements functions as a building block or co-molecule in various organelles.

Robert Shapiro, a professor of chemistry at New York University anda DNA expert, calculated the probability of the coincidental formation ofthe 2000 types of proteins found in a single bacterium (There are 200,000different types of proteins in a human cell). The number that was foundwas 1 over 1040000.110 (This is an incredible number obtained by putting40,000 zeros after the 1)

A professor of applied mathematics and astronomy from UniversityCollege Cardiff, Wales, Chandra Wickramasinghe, comments:

The likelihood of the spontaneous formation of life from inanimate matteris one to a number with 40,000 noughts after it... It is big enough to buryDarwin and the whole theory of evolution. There was no primeval soup,neither on this planet nor on any other, and if the beginnings of life were notrandom, they must therefore have been the product of purposeful intelli-gence.111

Sir Fred Hoyle comments on these implausible numbers:Indeed, such a theory (that life was assembled by an intelligence) is so obvi-ous that one wonders why it is not widely accepted as being self-evident. Thereasons are psychological rather than scientific.112

The reason Hoyle used the term "psychological" is the self-condition-ing of evolutionists not to accept that life could have been created. The re-jection of God's existence is their main goal. For this reason alone, they goon defending irrational theories which they at the same time acknowledgeto be impossible.

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Left-handed Proteins

Let us now examine in detail why the evolutionist scenario regardingthe formation of proteins is impossible.

Even the correct sequence of the right amino acids is still not enoughfor the formation of a functional protein molecule. In addition to these re-quirements, each of the 20 different types of amino acids present in thecomposition of proteins must be left-handed. There are two different typesof amino acids-as of all organic molecules-called "left-handed" and "right-handed". The difference between them is the mirror-symmetry betweentheir three dimensional structures, which is similar to that of a person'sright and left hands.

Amino acids of either of these two types can easily bond with one an-other. But one astonishing fact that has been revealed by research is that allthe proteins in plants and animals on this planet, from the simplest organ-ism to the most complex, are made up of left-handed amino acids. If evena single right-handed amino acid gets attached to the structure of a pro-tein, the protein is rendered useless. In a series of experiments, surpris-ingly, bacteria that were exposed to right-handed amino acidsimmediately destroyed them. In some cases, they produced usable left-handed amino acids from the fractured components.

Let us for an instant suppose that life came about by chance as evolu-tionists claim it did. In this case, the right- and left-handed amino acidsthat were generated by chance should be present in roughly equal propor-tions in nature. Therefore, all living things should have both right- andleft-handed amino acids in their constitution, because chemically it is pos-sible for amino acids of both types to combine with each other. However,as we know, in the real world the proteins existing in all living organismsare made up only of left-handed amino acids.

The question of how proteins can pick out only the left-handed onesfrom among all amino acids, and how not even a single right-handedamino acid gets involved in the life process, is a problem that still bafflesevolutionists. Such a specific and conscious selection constitutes one of thegreatest impasses facing the theory of evolution.

Moreover, this characteristic of proteins makes the problem facingevolutionists with respect to "coincidence" even worse. In order for a"meaningful" protein to be generated, it is not enough for the amino acids

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to be present in a particular number and sequence, and to be combined to-gether in the right three-dimensional design. Additionally, all these aminoacids have to be left-handed: not even one of them can be right-handed.Yet there is no natural selection mechanism which can identify that a right-handed amino acid has been added to the sequence and recognise that itmust therefore be removed from the chain. This situation once more elimi-nates for good the possibility of coincidence and chance.

The Brittanica Science Encyclopaedia, which is an outspoken defenderof evolution, states that the amino acids of all the living organisms onearth, and the building blocks of complex polymers such as proteins, havethe same left-handed asymmetry. It adds that this is tantamount to tossinga coin a million times and always getting heads. The same encyclopaediastates that it is impossible to understand why molecules become left-handed or right-handed, and that this choice is fascinatingly related to theorigin of life on earth.113

If a coin always turns up heads when tossed a million times, is it morelogical to attribute that to chance, or else to accept that there is consciousintervention going on? The answer should be obvious. However, obviousthough it may be, evolutionists still take refuge in coincidence, simply be-cause they do not want to accept the existence of "conscious intervention".

A situation similar to the left-handedness of amino acids also existswith respect to nucleotides, the smallest units of the nucleic acids, DNAand RNA. In contrast to proteins, in which only left-handed amino acidsare chosen, in the case of the nucleic acids, the preferred forms of their nu-cleotide components are always right-handed. This is another fact that cannever be explained by coincidence.

In conclusion, it is proven beyond a shadow of doubt by the probabili-ties we have examined that the origin of life cannot be explained by chance.If we attempt to calculate the probability of an average-sized protein consist-ing of 400 amino acids being selected only from left-handed amino acids, wecome up with a probability of 1 in 2400, or 10120. Just for a comparison, let usremember that the number of electrons in the universe is estimated at 1079,which although vast, is a much smaller number. The probability of theseamino acids forming the required sequence and functional form would gen-erate much larger numbers. If we add these probabilities to each other, and ifwe go on to work out the probabilities of even higher numbers and types ofproteins, the calculations become inconceivable.

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The Molecular Impasse of Evolution 127

Correct Bond is Vital

The difficulties the theory of evolution is unable to overcome with re-gard to the development of a single protein are not limited to those wehave recounted so far. It is not enough for amino acids to be arranged inthe correct numbers, sequences, and required three-dimensional struc-tures. The formation of a protein also requires that amino acid moleculeswith more than one arm be linked to each other only in certain ways. Sucha bond is called a "peptide bond". Amino acids can make different bondswith each other; but proteins are made up of those-and only those-aminoacids which are joined by "peptide" bonds.

A comparison will clarify this point. Suppose that all the parts of a carwere complete and correctly assembled, with the sole exception that one ofthe wheels was fastened in place not with the usual nuts and bolts, butwith a piece of wire, in such a way that its hub faced the ground. It wouldbe impossible for such a car to move even the shortest distance, no matterhow complex its technology or how powerful its engine. At first glance,everything would seem to be in the right place, but the faulty attachmentof even one wheel would make the entire car useless. In the same way, in aprotein molecule the joining of even one amino acid to another with abond other than a peptide bond would make the entire molecule useless.

Research has shown that amino acids combining at random combinewith a peptide bond only 50% of the time, and that the rest of the time dif-ferent bonds that are not present in proteins emerge. To function properly,each amino acid making up a protein must be joined to others only with apeptide bond, in the same way that it likewise must be chosen only fromamong left-handed forms.

This probability of this happening is the same as the probability ofeach protein's being left-handed. That is, when we consider a protein madeup of 400 amino acids, the probability of all amino acids combining amongthemselves with only peptide bonds is 1 in 2399.

Zero Probability

As can be seen below, the probability of formation of a protein mole-cule made up of 500 amino acids is "1" over a number formed by placing950 zeros next to 1, which is a number incomprehensible for the humanmind. This is a probability only on paper. Practically speaking, there is

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zero chance of its actually happening. As we saw earlier, in mathematics, aprobability smaller than 1 in 1050 is statistically considered to have a "0"probability of occurring.

A probability of "1 over 10950" is far beyond the limits of this defini-tion.

While the improbability of the formation of a protein molecule madeup of 500 amino acids reaches such an extent, we can further proceed topush the limits of the mind with higher levels of improbability. In the"haemoglobin" molecule, which is a vital protein, there are 574 amino acids,which is more than the amino acids making up the protein mentionedabove. Now consider this: in only one out of the billions of red blood cells inyour body, there are "280,000,000" (280 million) haemoglobin molecules.

The supposed age of the earth is not sufficient to allow the formationof even a single protein by a "trial and error" method, let alone that of a redblood cell. Even if we suppose that amino acids have combined and de-composed by a "trial and error" method without losing any time since theformation of the earth, in order to form a single protein molecule, the timethat would be required for something with a probability of 10950 to happenwould still hugely exceed the estimated age of the earth.

The conclusion to be drawn from all this is that evolution falls into aterrible abyss of improbability even when it comes to the formation of asingle protein.

Is There a Trial and Error Mechanism in Nature?

Finally, we may conclude with a very important point in relation tothe basic logic of probability calculations, of which we have already seensome examples. We indicated that the probability calculations made abovereach astronomical levels, and that these astronomical odds have no chanceof actually happening. However, there is a much more important and dam-aging fact facing evolutionists here. This is that under natural conditions, noperiod of trial and error can even start, despite the astronomical odds, be-cause there is no trial-and-error mechanism in nature from which proteinscould emerge.

The calculations we give on page across to demonstrate the probabilityof the formation of a protein molecule with 500 amino acids are valid only foran ideal trial-and-error environment, which does not actually exist in real life.

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There are 3 basic conditions for the formation of a useful protein:

First condition: that all the amino acids in the protein chain are of the right type and in the right sequence

Second condition: that all the amino acids in the chain are left-handed

Third condition: that all of these amino acids are united between them by forming a chemical bond called "peptidebond".

In order for a protein to be formed by chance, all three basic conditions must exist simultaneously. The probability ofthe formation of a protein by chance is equal to the multiplication of the probabilities of the realisation of each ofthese conditions.

For instance, for an average molecule comprising of 500 amino acids:

1. The probability of the amino acids being in the right sequence:

There are 20 types of amino acids used in the composition of proteins. According to this:

- The probability of each amino acid being chosen correctly among these 20 types = 1/20

- The probability of all of those 500 amino acids being chosen correctly = 1/20500

= 1/10650

= 1 chance in 10650

2. The probability of the amino acids being left-handed:

- The probability of only one amino acid being left-handed = 1/2

- The probability of all of those 500 amino acids being left-handed at the same time = 1/2500 = 1/10150

= 1 chance in 10150

3. The probability of the amino acids being combined with a "peptide bond":

Amino acids can combine with each other with different kinds of chemical bonds. In order for a useful protein to beformed, all the amino acids in the chain must have been combined with a special chemical bond called a "peptidebond". It is calculated that the probability of the amino acids being combined not with another chemical bond but bya peptide bond is 50%. In relation to this:

- The probability of two amino acids being combined with a "peptide bond" = 1/2

- The probability of 500 amino acids all combining with peptide bonds = 1/2499

= 1/10150

= 1 chance in 10150

The Probability of a Protein Being Formed byChance is Zero

TOTAL PROBABILITY = 1/10650 x 1/10150x 1/10150 = 1/10950

= 1 chance in 10950

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That is, the probability of obtaining a useful protein is "1" in 10950 only if wesuppose that there exists an imaginary mechanism in which an invisiblehand joins 500 amino acids at random and then, seeing that this is not theright combination, disentangles them one by one, and arranges them againin a different order, and so on. In each trial, the amino acids would have tobe separated one by one, and be arranged in a new order. The synthesisshould be stopped after the 500th amino acid has been added, and it mustbe ensured that not even one extra amino acid is involved. The trial shouldthen be stopped to see whether or not a functional protein has yet beenformed, and, in the event of failure, everything should be split up againand then tested for another sequence. Additionally, in each trial, not evenone extraneous substance should be allowed to become involved. It is alsoimperative that the chain formed during the trial should not be separatedand destroyed before reaching the 499th link. These conditions mean thatthe probabilities we have mentioned above can only operate in a con-trolled environment where there is a conscious mechanism directing thebeginning, the end, and each intermediate stage of the process, and where



The probability of an average protein molecule made up of 500 aminoacids being arranged in the correct quantity and sequence in additionto the probability of all of the amino acids it contains being only left-

handed and being combined with only peptide bonds is "1" over10950. We can write this number which is formed by putting

950 zeros next to 1 as follows:

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The Molecular Impasse of Evolution 131

only "the correct selection of the amino acids" is left to chance. It is clearlyimpossible for such an environment to exist under natural conditions.Therefore the formation of a protein in the natural environment is logicallyand technically impossible. In fact, to talk of the probabilities of such anevent is quite unscientific.

Since some people are unable to take a broad view of these matters,but approach them from a superficial viewpoint and assume protein for-mation to be a simple chemical reaction, they may make unrealistic deduc-tions such as "amino acids combine by way of reaction and then formproteins". However, accidental chemical reactions taking place in an inani-mate structure can only lead to simple and primitive changes. The numberof these is predetermined and limited. For a somewhat more complexchemical material, huge factories, chemical plants, and laboratories haveto be involved. Medicines and many other chemical materials that we usein our daily life are made in just this way. Proteins have much more com-plex structures than these chemicals produced by industry. Therefore, it isimpossible for proteins, each of which is a wonder of design and engineer-ing, in which every part takes its place in a fixed order, to originate as a re-sult of haphazard chemical reactions.

Let us for a minute put aside all the impossibilities we have describedso far, and suppose that a useful protein molecule still evolved sponta-neously "by accident". Even so, evolution again has no answers, because inorder for this protein to survive, it would need to be isolated from its nat-ural habitat and be protected under very special conditions. Otherwise, itwould either disintegrate from exposure to natural conditions on earth, orelse join with other acids, amino acids, or chemical compounds, therebylosing its particular properties and turning into a totally different and use-less substance.

The Evolutionary Fuss About the Origin of Life

The question of "how living things first appeared" is such a criticalimpasse for evolutionists that they usually try not even to touch upon thissubject. They try to pass over this question by saying "the first creaturescame into existence as a result of some random events in water". They areat a road-block that they can by no means get around. In spite of the pale-ontological evolution arguments, in this subject they have no fossils avail-

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able to distort and misinterpret as they wish to support their assertions.Therefore, the theory of evolution is definitely refuted from the very be-ginning.

Above all, there is one important point to take into consideration: Ifany one step in the evolutionary process is proven to be impossible, thisjis sufficient to prove that the whole theory is totally false and invalid.For instance, by proving that the haphazard formation of proteins is im-possible, all other claims regarding the subsequent steps of evolution arealso refuted. After this, it becomes meaningless to take some human andape skulls and engage in speculation about them.

How living organisms came into existence out of nonliving matterwas an issue that evolutionists did not even want to mention for a longtime. However, this question, which had constantly been avoided, eventu-ally had to be addressed, and attempts were made to settle it with a seriesof experiments in the second quarter of the 20th century.

The main question was: How could the first living cell have appearedin the primordial atmosphere on the earth? In other words, what kind ofexplanation could evolutionists offer?

The answers to the questions were sought through experiments. Evo-lutionist scientists and researchers carried out laboratory experiments di-rected at answering these questions but these did not create much interest.The most generally respected study on the origin of life is the Miller ex-periment conducted by the American researcher Stanley Miller in 1953.(The experiment is also known as "Urey-Miller experiment" because of thecontribution of Miller's instructor at the University of Chicago, HaroldUrey.)

This experiment is the only "evidence" evolutionists have with whichto allegedly prove the "molecular evolution thesis"; they advance it as thefirst stage of the supposed evolutionary process leading to life. Althoughnearly half a century has passed, and great technological advances havebeen made, nobody has made any further progress. In spite of this, Miller'sexperiment is still taught in textbooks as the evolutionary explanation ofthe earliest generation of living things. Aware of the fact that such studiesdo not support, but rather actually refute, their thesis, evolutionist re-searchers deliberately avoid embarking on such experiments.


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Miller's Experiment

Stanley Miller's aim was to demonstrate by means of an experimentthat amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, could have come into ex-istence "by chance" on the lifeless earth billions of years ago.

In his experiment, Miller used a gas mixture that he assumed to haveexisted on the primordial earth (but which later proved unrealistic) com-posed of ammonia, methane, hydrogen, and water vapour. Since thesegasses would not react with each other under natural conditions, he addedenergy to the mixture to start a reaction among them. Supposing that thisenergy could have come from lightning in the primordial atmosphere, heused an electric current for this purpose.

Miller heated this gas mixture at 1000C for a week and added the elec-trical current. At the end of the week, Miller analysed the chemicals whichhad formed at the bottom of the jar, and observed that three out of the 20amino acids, which constitute the basic elements of proteins had been syn-thesised.

This experiment aroused great excitement among evolutionists, andwas promoted as an outstanding success. Moreover, in a state of intoxi-cated euphoria, various publications carried headlines such as "Miller cre-ates life". However, what Miller had managed to synthesise was only a few"inanimate" molecules.

Encouraged by this experiment, evolutionists immediately producednew scenarios. Stages following the development of amino acids were hur-riedly hypothesised. Supposedly, amino acids had later united in the cor-rect sequences by accident to form proteins. Some of these proteins whichemerged by chance formed themselves into cell membrane-like structureswhich "somehow" came into existence and formed a primitive cell. Thecells then supposedly came together over time to form multicellular livingorganisms. However, Miller's experiment was nothing but make-believeand has since proven to be false in many aspects.

Miller's Experiment was Nothing but Make-believe

Miller's experiment sought to prove that amino acids could form ontheir own in primordial earth-like conditions, but it contains inconsisten-cies in a number of areas:

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1. By using a mechanism called a "cold trap", Miller isolated theamino acids from the environment as soon as they were formed. Had henot done so, the conditions in the environment in which the amino acidswere formed would immediately have destroyed these molecules.

Doubtless, this kind of a conscious mechanism of isolation did notexist on the primordial earth. Without such a mechanism, even if oneamino acid were obtained, it would immediately have been destroyed. Thechemist Richard Bliss expresses this contradiction by observing that "Actu-ally, without this trap, the chemical products would have been destroyedby the energy source."114

And, sure enough, in his previous experiments, Miller had been un-able to make even one single amino acid using the same materials withoutthe cold trap mechanism.

2. The primordial atmospheric environment that Miller attemptedto simulate in his experiment was not realistic. In the 1980s, scientistsagreed that nitrogen and carbon dioxide should have been used in this ar-tificial environment instead of methane and ammonia. After a long periodof silence, Miller himself also confessed that the atmospheric environmenthe used in his experiment was not realistic.115

So why did Miller insist on these gasses? The answer is simple: with-out ammonia, it was impossible to synthesise any amino acid. Kevin McKean talks about this in an article published in Discover magazine:

Miller and Urey imitated the ancient atmosphere on the Earth with a mixtureof methane and ammonia. According to them, the Earth was a true hom*oge-neous mixture of metal, rock and ice. However in the latest studies, it hasbeen understood that the Earth was very hot at those times, and that it wascomposed of melted nickel and iron. Therefore, the chemical atmosphere ofthat time should have been formed mostly of nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide(CO2) and water vapour (H2O). However these are not as appropriate asmethane and ammonia for the production of organic molecules.116

The American scientists J.P. Ferris and C.T. Chen repeated Miller's ex-periment with an atmospheric environment that contained carbon dioxide,hydrogen, nitrogen, and water vapour, and were unable to obtain even asingle amino acid molecule.117

3. Another important point that invalidates Miller's experiment is thatthere was enough oxygen to destroy all the amino acids in the atmos-phere at the time when they were thought to have been formed. This fact,

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Today, Miller's ex-periment is totallydisregarded even

by evolutionist scien-tists. In the February1998 issue of the fa-mous evolutionist sci-ence journal Earth, thefollowing statements ap-pear in an article titled"Life's Crucible":

Geologist now think that the pri-mordial atmosphere consistedmainly of carbon dioxide and ni-trogen, gases that are less reac-tive than those used in the 1953experiment. And even if Miller's at-mosphere could have existed, howdo you get simple molecules suchas amino acids to go through thenecessary chemical changes thatwill convert them into more com-plicated compounds, or polymers,such as proteins? Miller himselfthrows up his hands at that part ofthe puzzle. "It's a problem," hesighs with exasperation. "How doyou make polymers? That's not soeasy."1

As seen, today even Miller himselfhas accepted that his experimentdoes not lead to an explanation of theorigin of life. The fact that evolu-tionist scientists embraced thisexperiment so fervently only in-dicates the difficulties facingevolution, and the desperationof its advocates.

In the March 1998 issue ofNational Geographic, in an arti-cle titled "The Emergence of Lifeon Earth", the following com-ments appear:

Many scientists now suspectthat the early atmospherewas different from whatMiller first supposed. They

think it consisted of carbon diox-ide and nitrogen rather than hy-drogen, methane, and ammonia.

That's bad news for chemists.When they try sparking carbondioxide and nitrogen, they get apaltry amount of organic mole-cules - the equivalent of dis-solving a drop of food colouring ina swimming pool of water. Scien-tists find it hard to imagine lifeemerging from such a dilutedsoup.2

In brief, neither Miller's experi-ment, nor any other similar one thathas been attempted, can answer thequestion of how life emerged onearth. All of the research that hasbeen done shows that it is impossiblefor life to emerge by chance, and thusconfirms that life is created.

1- Earth, "Life's Crucible", February 1998, p.34

2- National Geographic, "The Rise of Life on

Earth", March 1998, p.68

Latest Evolutionist Sources Dispute Miller's Experiment

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overlooked by Miller, is revealed by the traces of oxidised iron and ura-nium found in rocks that are estimated to be 3.5 billion years old.118

There are other findings showing that the amount of oxygen in the at-mosphere at that time was much higher than originally claimed by evolution-ists. Studies also show that at that time, the amount of ultraviolet radiation towhich the earth was then exposed was 10,000 times more than evolutionists'estimates. This intense radiation would unavoidably have freed oxygen bydecomposing the water vapour and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

This situation completely negates Miller's experiment, in which oxygenwas completely neglected. If oxygen had been used in the experiment,methane would have decomposed into carbon dioxide and water, and am-monia into nitrogen and water. On the other hand, in an environment wherethere was no oxygen, there would be no ozone layer either; therefore, theamino acids would have immediately been destroyed, since they would havebeen exposed to the most intense ultraviolet rays without the protection ofthe ozone layer. In other words, with or without oxygen in the primordialworld, the result would have been a deadly environment for the amino acids.

4. At the end of Miller's experiment, many organic acids had beenformed with characteristics detrimental to the structure and function ofliving things. If the amino acids had not been isolated, and had been left inthe same environment with these chemicals, their destruction or transfor-mation into different compounds through chemical reactions would havebeen unavoidable.

Moreover, a large number of right-handed amino acids were formedat the end of the experiment.119 The existence of these amino acids refutedthe theory even within its own terms because right-handed amino acidscannot function in the composition of living organisms. To conclude, thecirc*mstances in which amino acids were formed in Miller's experimentwere not suitable for life. In truth, this medium took the form of an acidicmixture destroying and oxidising the useful molecules obtained.

All these facts point to one firm truth: Miller's experiment cannotclaim to have proved that living things formed by chance under primor-dial earth-like conditions. The whole experiment is nothing more than adeliberate and controlled laboratory experiment to synthesise amino acids.The amount and types of the gases used in the experiment were ideally de-termined to allow amino acids to originate. The amount of energy suppliedto the system was neither too much nor too little, but arranged precisely to

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The Molecular Impasse of Evolution 137

enable the necessary reactions to occur. The experimental apparatus wasisolated, so that it would not allow the leaking of any harmful, destructive,or any other kind of elements to hinder the formation of amino acids. Noelements, minerals or compounds that were likely to have been present onthe primordial earth, but which would have changed the course of the re-actions, were included in the experiment. Oxygen, which would have pre-vented the formation of amino acids because of oxidation, is only one ofthese destructive elements. Even under such ideal laboratory conditions, itwas impossible for the amino acids produced to survive and avoid de-struction without the "cold trap" mechanism.

In fact, by his experiment, Miller destroyed evolution's claim that "lifeemerged as the result of unconscious coincidences". That is because, if theexperiment proves anything, it is that amino acids can only be produced in acontrolled laboratory environment where all the conditions are specificallydesigned by conscious intervention. That is, the power that brings about lifecannot be by unconscious chance but rather by conscious creation.

The reason evolutionists do not accept this evident reality is theirblind adherence to prejudices that are totally unscientific. Interestinglyenough, Harold Urey, who organised the Miller experiment with his stu-dent Stanley Miller, made the following confession on the subject:

All of us who study the origin of life find that the more we look into it, themore we feel it is too complex to have evolved anywhere. We all believe asan article of faith that life evolved from dead matter on this planet. It is justthat its complexity is so great, it is hard for us to imagine that it did.120

Primordial World Atmosphere and Proteins

Evolutionist sources use the Miller experiment, despite all of its in-consistencies, to try to gloss over the question of the origin of amino acids.By giving the impression that the issue has long since been resolved bythat invalid experiment, they try to paper over the cracks in the theory ofevolution.

However, to explain the second stage of the origin of life, evolution-ists faced an even greater problem than that of the formation of aminoacids-namel, the origin of proteins, the building blocks of life, which arecomposed of hundreds of different amino acids bonding with each other ina particular order.

Claiming that proteins were formed by chance under natural condi-

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tions is even more unrealistic and unreasonable than claiming that aminoacids were formed by chance. In the preceding pages we have seen themathematical impossibility of the haphazard uniting of amino acids inproper sequences to form proteins with probability calculations. Now, wewill examine the impossibility of proteins being produced chemicallyunder primordial earth conditions.

Protein Synthesis is not Possible in Water

As we saw before, when combining to form proteins, amino acidsform a special bond with one another called the "peptide bond". A watermolecule is released during the formation of this peptide bond.

This fact definitely refutes the evolutionist explanation that primor-dial life originated in water, because according to the "Le Châtelier princi-ple" in chemistry, it is not possible for a reaction that releases water (acondensation reaction) to take place in a hydrous environment. Thechances of this kind of a reaction happening in a hydrate environment issaid to "have the least probability of occurring" of all chemical reactions.

Hence the ocean, which is claimed to be where life began and aminoacids originated, is definitely not an appropriate setting for amino acids toform proteins. On the other hand, it would be irrational for evolutionists tochange their minds and claim that life originated on land, because the onlyenvironment where amino acids could have been protected from ultravio-let radiation is in the oceans and seas. On land, they would be destroyedby ultraviolet rays. The Le Châtelier Principle disproves the claim of theformation of life in the sea. This is another dilemma confronting evolution.

Another Desperate Effort: Fox's Experiment

Challenged by the above dilemma, evolutionists began to invent un-realistic scenarios based on this "water problem" that so definitively re-futed their theories. Sydney Fox was one of the best known of theseresearchers. Fox advanced the following theory to solve this problem. Ac-cording to him, the first amino acids must have been transported to somecliffs near a volcano right after their formation in the primordial ocean.The water contained in this mixture that included the amino acids presenton the cliffs, must have evaporated when the temperature increased aboveboiling point. The amino acids which were "dried out" in this way, could

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then have combined to form proteins.However this "complicated" way out was not accepted by many peo-

ple in the field, because the amino acids could not have endured such hightemperatures. Research confirmed that amino acids are immediately de-stroyed at very high temperatures.

But Fox did not give up. He combined purified amino acids in the lab-oratory, "under very special conditions" by heating them in a dry environ-ment. The amino acids combined, but still no proteins were obtained.What he actually ended up with was simple and disordered loops ofamino acids, arbitrarily combined with each other, and these loops werefar from resembling any living protein. Furthermore, if Fox had kept theamino acids at a steady temperature, then these useless loops would alsohave disintegrated.121

Another point that nullified the experiment was that Fox did notusethe useless end products obtained in Miller's experiment; rather, heused pure amino acids from living organisms. This experiment, however,which was intended to be a continuation of Miller's experiment, shouldhave started out from the results obtained by Miller. Yet neither Fox, norany other researcher, used the useless amino acids Miller produced.122

Fox's experiment was not even welcomed in evolutionist circles, be-cause it was clear that the meaningless amino acid chains that he obtained(which he termed "proteinoids") could not have formed under natural con-ditions. Moreover, proteins, the basic units of life, still could not be pro-duced. The problem of the origin of proteins remained unsolved. In anarticle in the popular science magazine, Chemical Engineering News, whichappeared in the 1970s, Fox's experiment was mentioned as follows:

Sydney Fox and the other researchers managed to unite the amino acids inthe shape of "proteinoids" by using very special heating techniques under

In his experiment, Fox produced a substance

called "proteinoid". Proteinoids were randomly

assembled combinations of amino acids. Un-

like proteins of living things, these were

useless and non-functional chemicals.

Here is an electron microscope vision of

proteinoid particles.

The Molecular Impasse of Evolution

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conditions which in fact did not exist at all in the primordial stages of Earth.Also, they are not at all similar to the very regular proteins present in livingthings. They are nothing but useless, irregular chemical stains. It was ex-plained that even if such molecules had formed in the early ages, they woulddefinitely be destroyed.123

Indeed, the proteinoids Fox obtained were totally different from realproteins both in structure and function. The difference between proteinsand these proteinoids was as huge as the difference between a piece ofhigh-tech equipment and a heap of unprocessed iron.

Furthermore, there was no chance that even these irregular aminoacid chains could have survived in the primordial atmosphere. Harmfuland destructive physical and chemical effects caused by heavy exposure to

Anumber of evolutionist experiments such as the Miller Experiment and the Fox

Experiment have been devised to prove the claim that inanimate matter can or-

ganise itself and generate a complex living being. This is an utterly unscientific

conviction: every observation and experiment has incontrovertibly proven that matter

has no such ability. The famous English astronomer and mathematician Sir Fred Hoyle

notes that matter cannot generate life by itself, without deliberate interference:

If there were a basic principle of matter which somehow drove organic systems toward

life, its existence should easily be demonstrable in the laboratory. One could, for in-

stance, take a swimming bath to represent the primordial soup. Fill it with any chemicals

of a non-biological nature you please. Pump any gases over it, or through it, you please,

and shine any kind of radiation on it that takes your fancy. Let the experiment proceed

for a year and see how many of those 2,000 enzymes (proteins produced by living cells)

have appeared in the bath. I will give the answer, and so save the time and trouble and

expense of actually doing the experiment. You will find nothing at all, except possibly for

a tarry sludge composed of amino acids and other simple organic chemicals.1

Evolutionist biologist Andrew Scott admits the same fact:

Take some matter, heat while stirring and wait. That is the modern version of Genesis.

The 'fundamental' forces of gravity, electromagnetism and the strong and weak nuclear

forces are presumed to have done the rest... But how much of this neat tale is firmly es-

tablished, and how much remains hopeful speculation? In truth, the mechanism of al-

most every major step, from chemical precursors up to the first recognizable cells, is

the subject of either controversy or complete bewilderment.2

1- Fred Hoyle, The Intelligent Universe, New York, Holt, Rinehard & Winston, 1983, p. 2562- Andrew Scott, "Update on Genesis", New Scientist, vol. 106, May 2nd, 1985, p. 30


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The Molecular Impasse of Evolution 141

ultraviolet light and other unstable natural conditions would have causedthese proteinoids to disintegrate. Because of the Le Châtelier principle, itwas also impossible for the amino acids to combine underwater, where ul-traviolet rays would not reach them. In view of this, the idea that the pro-teinoids were the basis of life eventually lost support among scientists.

The Miraculous Molecule: DNAOur examinations so far have shown that the theory of evolution is in

a serious quandary at the molecular level. Evolutionists have shed no lighton the formation of amino acids at all. The formation of proteins, on theother hand, is another mystery all its own.

Yet the problems are not even limited just to amino acids and pro-teins: These are only the beginning. Beyond them, the extremely complexstructure of the cell leads evolutionists to yet another impasse. The reasonfor this is that the cell is not just a heap of amino-acid-structured proteins,but rather the most complex system man has ever encountered.

While the theory of evolution was having such trouble providing acoherent explanation for the existence of the molecules that are the basis ofthe cell structure, developments in the science of genetics and the discov-ery of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) produced brand-new problems forthe theory. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick launched a new age inbiology with their work on the structure of DNA. Soon, many scientistswere directing their attention to the science of genetics. Today, after manyyears of research, the structure of DNA has been to a great extent unrav-elled.

The molecule known as DNA, which is found in the nucleus of each ofthe 100 trillion cells in our bodies, contains the complete blueprint for theconstruction of the human body. The information regarding all the charac-teristics of a person, from physical appearance to the structure of the innerorgans, is recorded in DNA within the sequence of four special bases thatmake up the giant molecule. These bases are known as A, T, G, and C, ac-cording to the initial letters of their names. All the structural differencesamong people depend on variations in the sequences of these letters. This isa sort of a data-bank composed of four letters.

The sequential order of the letters in DNA determines the structure ofa human being down to its slightest details. In addition to features such as

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height, and eye, hair and skincolours, the DNA in a single cellalso contains the design of the 206bones, the 600 muscles, the 100 bil-lion nerve cells (neurons), 1.000trillion connections between theneurons of the brain, 97,000 kilo-metres of veins, and the 100 trillion cells of the human body. If we were towrite down the information coded in DNA, then we would have to com-pile a giant library consisting of 900 volumes of 500 pages each. But theinformation this enormous library would hold is encoded inside the DNAmolecules in the cell nucleus, which is far smaller than the 1/100th-of-a-millimetre-long cell itself.

Can DNA Come into Being by Chance?

At this point, there is an important detail that deserves attention. Anerror in the sequence of the nucleotides making up a gene would renderthat gene completely useless. When it is considered that there are 200,000genes in the human body, it becomes clearer how impossible it is for themillions of nucleotides making up these genes to have been formed, in theright sequence, by chance. The evolutionist biologist Frank Salisbury hascomments on this impossibility:

A medium protein might include about 300 amino acids. The DNA gene con-trolling this would have about 1,000 nucleotides in its chain. Since there arefour kinds of nucleotides in a DNA chain, one consisting of 1,000 links couldexist in 41,000 forms. Using a little algebra (logarithms) we can see that41000=10600. Ten multiplied by itself 600 times gives the figure 1 followed by600 zeros! This number is completely beyond our comprehension.124

The number 41000 is the equivalent of 10600. This means 1 followed by

All information about living beings is

stored in the DNA molecule. This

incredibly efficient information storage

method alone is a clear evidence that life

did not come into being by chance, but

has been purposefully designed, or,

better to say, marvellously created.

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The Molecular Impasse of Evolution 143

600 zeros. As 1 with 12 zeros after it indicates a trillion, 600 zeros representsan inconceivable number. The impossibility of the formation of RNA andDNA by a coincidental accumulation of nucleotides is expressed by theFrench scientist Paul Auger in this way:

We have to sharply distinguish the two stages in the chance formation ofcomplex molecules such as nucleotides by chemical events. The productionof nucleotides one by one - which is possible- and the combination of thesewith in very special sequences. The second is absolutely impossible.125

For many years, Francis Crick believed in the theory of molecularevolution, but eventually even he had to admit to himself that such a com-plex molecule could not have emerged spontaneously by coincidence, asthe result of an evolutionary process:

An honest man, armed with all the knowledge available to us now, couldonly state that, in some sense, the origin of life appears at the moment to bealmost a miracle.126

The Turkish evolutionist Professor Ali Demirsoy was forced to makethe following confession on the issue:

In fact, the probability of the formation of a protein and a nucleic acid (DNA-RNA) is a probability way beyond estimating. Furthermore, the chance of theemergence of a certain protein chain is so slight as to be called astronomic.127

A very interesting paradox emerges at this point: While DNA canonly replicate with the help of special proteins (enzymes), the synthesis ofthese proteins can only be realised by the information encoded in DNA. As

Watson andCrick with astick modelof the DNAmolecule.

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they both depend on each other, either they have to exist at the same timefor replication, or one of them has to be "created" before the other. TheAmerican microbiologist Homer Jacobson comments:

Directions for the reproduction of plans, for energy and the extraction ofparts from the current environment, for the growth sequence, and for the ef-fector mechanism translating instructions into growth-all had to be simulta-neously present at that moment [when life began]. This combination ofevents has seemed an incredibly unlikely happenstance, and has often beenascribed to divine intervention.128

The quotation above was written two years after the discovery of thestructure of DNA by Watson and Crick. But despite all the developmentsin science, this problem for evolutionists remains unsolved. Two Germanscientists Junker and Scherer explained that the synthesis of each of themolecules required for chemical evolution, necessitates distinct conditions,and that the probability of the compounding of these materials having the-oretically very different acquirement methods is zero:

Until now, no experiment is known in which we can obtain all the moleculesnecessary for chemical evolution. Therefore, it is essential to produce variousmolecules in different places under very suitable conditions and then to carrythem to another place for reaction by protecting them from harmful elementslike hydrolysis and photolysis.129

In short, the theory of evolution is unable to prove any of the evolution-ary stages that allegedly occur at the molecular level. Rather than providinganswers to such questions, the progress of science ren-ders them even more complex and inextricable.

Interestingly enough, most evolutionists be-lieve in this and similar totally unscientific fairy talesas if they were true, because accepting intelligent de-sign means accepting creation-and they have condi-tioned themselves not to accept this truth. Onefamous biologist from Australia, Michael Denton,discusses the subject in his book Evolution: A Theoryin Crisis:

To the skeptic, the proposition that the genetic pro-grammes of higher organisms, consisting of some-thing close to a thousand million bits of information,equivalent to the sequence of letters in a small library of 1,000 volumes, con-taining in encoded form countless thousands of intricate algorithms control-


Prof. Francis Crick:"The origin of life ap-

pears to be almost a miracle."

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The Molecular Impasse of Evolution 145

ling, specifying, and ordering the growth and development of billions and bil-lions of cells into the form of a complex organism, were composed by a purelyrandom process is simply an affront to reason. But to the Darwinist, the ideais accepted without a ripple of doubt-the paradigm takes precedence!130

Another Evolutionist Vain Attempt: "The RNA World"

The discovery in the 1970s that the gasses originally existing in theprimitive atmosphere of the earth would have rendered amino acid syn-thesis impossible was a serious blow to the theory of molecular evolution.Evolutionists then had to face the fact that the "primitive atmosphere ex-periments" by Stanley Miller, Sydney Fox, Cyril Ponnamperuma and oth-ers were invalid. For this reason, in the 1980s the evolutionists tried again.As a result, the "RNA World" hypothesis was advanced. This scenario pro-posed that, not proteins, but rather the RNA molecules that contained theinformation for proteins, were formed first.

According to this scenario, advanced by Harvard chemist WalterGilbert in 1986, based on a discovery about "ribozymes" by Thomas Cech ,billions of years ago an RNA molecule capable of replicating itself formedsomehow by accident. Then this RNA molecule started to produce pro-teins, having been activated by external influences. Thereafter, it becamenecessary to store this information in a second molecule, and somehow theDNA molecule emerged to do that.

Made up as it is of a chain of impossibilities in each and every stage,this scarcely credible scenario, far from providing any explanation of theorigin of life, only magnified the problem, and raised many unanswerablequestions:

1. Since it is impossible to accept the coincidental formation of evenone of the nucleotides making up RNA, how can it be possible for theseimaginary nucleotides to form RNA by coming together in a particular se-quence? Evolutionist John Horgan admits the impossibility of the chanceformation of RNA;

As researchers continue to examine the RNA-world concept closely, moreproblems emerge. How did RNA initially arise? RNA and its components aredifficult to synthesize in a laboratory under the best of conditions, much lessunder really plausible ones.131

2. Even if we suppose that it formed by chance, how could this RNA,

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consisting of just a nucleotide chain, have "decided" to self-replicate, andwith what kind of mechanism could it have carried out this self-replicatingprocess? Where did it find the nucleotides it used while self-replicating?Even evolutionist microbiologists Gerald Joyce and Leslie Orgel expressthe desperate nature of the situation in their book In the RNA World:

This discussion… has, in a sense, focused on a straw man: the myth of a self-replicating RNA molecule that arose de novo from a soup of random polynu-cleotides. Not only is such a notion unrealistic in light of our currentunderstanding of prebiotic chemistry, but it would strain the credulity ofeven an optimist's view of RNA's catalytic potential.132

3. Even if we suppose that there was self-replicating RNA in the pri-

Probabilistic calculations make it clear that complex molecules such as pro-teins and nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) could not ever have been formed bychance independently of each other. Yet evolutionists have to face the even

greater problem that all these complex molecules have to coexist simultaneouslyin order for life to exist at all. Evolutionary theory is utterly confounded by this re-quirement. This is a point on which some leading evolutionists have been forcedto confession. For instance, Stanley Miller's and Francis Crick's close associatefrom the University of San Diego California, reputable evolutionist Dr. Leslie Orgelsays:

It is extremely improbable that proteins and nucleic acids, both of which arestructurally complex, arose spontaneously in the same place at the same time.Yet it also seems impossible to have one without the other. And so, at firstglance, one might have to conclude that life could never, in fact, have originatedby chemical means.1

The same fact is also admitted by other scientists:DNA cannot do its work, including forming more DNA, without the help of cat-alytic proteins, or enzymes. In short, proteins cannot form without DNA, but nei-ther can DNA form without proteins.2

How did the Genetic Code, along with the mechanisms for its translation (ribo-somes and RNA molecules), originate? For the moment, we will have to contentourselves with a sense of wonder and awe, rather than with an answer.3

The New York Times science correspondent, Nicholas Wade made this comment inan article dated 2000:

Everything about the origin of life on Earth is a mystery, and it seems the morethat is known, the more acute the puzzle get.4

1- Leslie E. Orgel, "The Origin of Life on Earth", Scientific American, vol. 271, October 1994, p. 782- John Horgan, "In the Beginning", Scientific American, vol. 264, February 1991, p. 1193- Douglas R. Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, New York, VintageBooks, 1980, p. 5484- Nicholas Wade, "Life's Origins Get Murkier and Messier", The New York Times, June 13, 2000,pp. D1-D2


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mordial world, that numerous amino acids of every type ready to be used byRNA were available, and that all of these impossibilities somehow tookplace, the situation still does not lead to the formation of even one singleprotein. For RNA only includes information concerning the structure of pro-teins. Amino acids, on the other hand, are raw materials. Nevertheless, thereis no mechanism for the production of proteins. To consider the existence ofRNA sufficient for protein production is as nonsensical as expecting a car toassemble itself simplyh throwing the blueprint onto a heap of parts piled upon top of each other. A blueprint cannot produce a car all by itself without afactory and workers to assemble the parts according to the instructions con-tained in the blueprint; in the same way, the blueprint contained in RNAcannot produce proteins by itself without the cooperation of other cellularcomponents which follow the instructions contained in the RNA.

Proteins are produced in the ribosome factory with the help of manyenzymes and as a result of extremely complex processes within the cell. Theribosome is a complex cell organelle made up of proteins. This leads, there-fore, to another unreasonable supposition-that ribosomes, too, should havecome into existence by chance at the same time. Even Nobel Prize winnerJacques Monod, who was one of the most fanatical defenders of evolution-and atheism-explained that protein synthesis can by no means be consid-ered to depend merely on the information in the nucleic acids:

The code is meaningless unless translated. The modern cell's translating ma-chinery consists of at least 50 macromolecular components, which are them-selves coded in DNA: the code cannot be translated otherwise than by products oftranslation themselves. It is the modern expression of omne vivum ex ovo. Whenand how did this circle become closed? It is exceedingly difficult to imag-ine.133

How could an RNA chain in the primordial world have taken such adecision, and what methods could it have employed to make protein pro-duction happen by doing the work of 50 specialized particles on its own?Evolutionists have no answer to these questions.

Dr. Leslie Orgel, one of the associates of Stanley Miller and FrancisCrick from the University of California at San Diego, uses the term "sce-nario" for the possibility of "the origination of life through the RNAWorld". Orgel described what kind of features this RNA have had to haveand how impossible this would have been in his article "The Origin of Life"published in American Scientist in October 1994:

The Molecular Impasse of Evolution 147

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This scenario could have occured, we noted, if prebiotic RNA had two prop-erties not evident today: A capacity to replicate without the help of proteinsand an ability to catalyze every step of protein synthesis.134

As should by now be clear, to expect these two complex and ex-tremely essential processes from a molecule such as RNA is only possiblefrom the evolutionist's viewpoint and with the help of his power of imagi-nation. Concrete scientific facts, on the other hand, makes it explicit thatthe RNA World hypothesis, which is a new model proposed for the chanceformation of life, is an equally implausible fable.

Biochemist Gordon C. Mills from the University of Texas and Molecu-lar biologist Dean Kenyon from San Francisco State University assess theflaws of the RNA World scenario, and reach to a brief conclusion in theirarticle titled " The RNA World: A Critique": "RNA is a remarkable molecule.The RNA World hypothesis is another matter. We see no grounds for consideringit established, or even promising." 135

Science writer Brig Klyce's 2001 article explains that evolutionist sci-entists are very persistent on this issue, but the results obtained so far havealready shown that these efforts are all in vain:

Research in the RNA world is a medium-sized industry. This research hasdemonstrated how exceedingly difficult it would be for living cells to origi-nate by chance from nonliving matter in the time available on Earth. Thatdemonstration is a valuable contribution to science. Additional research willbe valuable as well. But to keep insisting that life can spontaneously emergefrom nonliving chemicals in the face of the newly comprehended difficultiesis puzzling. It is reminiscent of the work of medieval alchemists who persis-tently tried to turn lead into gold.136

Life is a Concept Beyond Mere Heaps of Molecules

So far, we have examined how impossible the accidental formation oflife is. Let us again ignore these impossibilities for just a moment. Let ussuppose that a protein molecule was formed in the most inappropriate,most uncontrolled environment such as the primordial earth conditions.The formation of only one protein would not be sufficient; this proteinwould have to wait patiently for thousands, maybe millions of years inthis uncontrolled environment without sustaining any damage, until an-other molecule was formed beside it by chance under the same conditions.It would have to wait until millions of correct and essential proteins were


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formed side by side in the same setting all "by chance". Those that formedearlier had to be patient enough to wait, without being destroyed despiteultraviolet rays and harsh mechanical effects, for the others to be formedright next to them. Then these proteins in adequate number, which all orig-inated at the very same spot, would have to come together by makingmeaningful combinations and form the organelles of the cell. No extrane-ous material, harmful molecule, or useless protein chain may interferewith them. Then, even if these organelles were to come together in an ex-tremely harmonious and co-operative way within a plan and order, theymust take all the necessary enzymes beside themselves and become coveredwith a membrane, the inside of which must be filled with a special liquid toprepare the ideal environment for them. Now even if all these "highly un-likely" events actually occurred by chance, would this molecular heap cometo life?

The answer is No, because research has revealed that the mere combi-nation of all the materials essential for life is not enough for life to getstarted. Even if all the essential proteins for life were collected and put in atest tube, these efforts would not result with producing a living cell. All theexperiments conducted on this subject have proved to be unsuccessful. Allobservations and experiments indicate that life can only originate from life.The assertion that life evolved from non-living things, in other words, "abio-genesis", is a tale only existing in the dreams of the evolutionists and com-pletely at variance with the results of every experiment and observation.

In this respect, the first life on earth must also have originated fromother life. This is a reflection of God's epithet of "Hayy" (The Owner ofLife). Life can only start, continue, and end by His will. As for evolution,not only is it unable to explain how life began, it is also unable to explainhow the materials essential for life have formed and come together.

Chandra Wickramasinghe describes the reality he faced as a scien-tist who had been told throughout his life that life had emerged as a re-sult of chance coincidences:

From my earliest training as a scientist, I was very strongly brainwashed tobelieve that science cannot be consistent with any kind of deliberate creation.That notion has had to be painfully shed. At the moment, I can't find any ra-tional argument to knock down the view which argues for conversion toGod. We used to have an open mind; now we realize that the only logical an-swer to life is creation-and not accidental random shuffling.137

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The second law of thermodynamics, which is accepted as one of thebasic laws of physics, holds that under normal conditions all sys-tems left on their own tend to become disordered, dispersed, and

corrupted in direct relation to the amount of time that passes. Everything,whether living or not wears out, deteriorates, decays, disintegrates, and isdestroyed. This is the absolute end that all beings will face one way or an-other, and according to the law, the process cannot be avoided.

This is something that all of us have observed. For example if youtake a car to a desert and leave it there, you would hardly expect to find itin a better condition when you came back years later. On the contrary, youwould see that its tires had gone flat, its windows had been broken, itschassis had rusted, and its engine had stopped working. The same in-evitable process holds true for living things.

The second law of thermodynamics is the means by which this nat-ural process is defined with physical equations and calculations.

This famous law of physics is also known as "the law of entropy". Inphysics, entropy is the measure of the disorder of a system. A system's en-tropy increases as it moves from an ordered, organised, and planned statetowards a more disordered, dispersed, and unplanned one. The more dis-order there is in a system, the higher its entropy is. The law of entropyholds that the entire universe is unavoidably proceeding towards a moredisordered, unplanned, and disorganised state.

The truth of the second law of thermodynamics, or the law of entropy,has been experimentally and theoretically established. All foremost scien-tists agree that the law of entropy will remain the principle paradigm forthe foreseeable future. Albert Einstein, the greatest scientist of our age, de-scribed it as the "premier law of all of science". Sir Arthur Eddington alsoreferred to it as the "supreme metaphysical law of the entire universe".138

Evolutionary theory ignores this fundamental law of physics. Themechanism offered by evolution totally contradicts the second law. The

ThermodynamicsFalsifies Evolution


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Thermodynamics Falsifies Evolution 151

theory of evolution says that disordered, dispersed, and lifeless atoms andmolecules spontaneously came together over time, in a particular order, toform extremely complex molecules such as proteins, DNA, and RNA,whereupon millions of different living species with even more complexstructures gradually emerged. According to the the-ory of evolution, this supposed process-which yieldsa more planned, more ordered, more complex andmore organised structure at each stage-was formedall by itself under natural conditions. The law of en-tropy makes it clear that this so-called naturalprocess utterly contradicts the laws of physics.

Evolutionist scientists are also aware of thisfact. J.H. Rush states:

In the complex course of its evolution, life exhibits aremarkable contrast to the tendency expressed in theSecond Law of Thermodynamics. Where the SecondLaw expresses an irreversible progression toward in-creased entropy and disorder, life evolves continuallyhigher levels of order.139

The evolutionist author Roger Lewin expressesthe thermodynamic impasse of evolution in an arti-cle in Science:

One problem biologists have faced is the apparent contradiction by evolutionof the second law of thermodynamics. Systems should decay through time,giving less, not more, order.140

Another defender of the theory of evolution, George Stravropoulosstates the thermodynamic impossibility of the spontaneous formation oflife and the impossibility of explaining the existence of complex livingmechanisms by natural laws in the well-known evolutionist journal Amer-ican Scientist:

Yet, under ordinary conditions, no complex organic molecule can ever formspontaneously but will rather disintegrate, in agreement with the second law.Indeed, the more complex it is, the more unstable it will be, and the more as-sured, sooner or later, its disintegration. Photosynthesis and all life processes,and even life itself, cannot yet be understood in terms of thermodynamics orany other exact science, despite the use of confused or deliberately confusinglanguage.141

As we have seen, the second law of thermodynamics constitutes an

The law of


holds that


conditions al-

ways lead to dis-

order and loss of



theory, on the

other hand, is an

unscientific be-

lief that utterly

contradicts with

this law.

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insurmountable obstacle for the scenario of evolution, in terms of both sci-ence and logic. Unable to offer any scientific and consistent explanation toovercome this obstacle, evolutionists can only do so in their imagination.For instance, the well-known evolutionist Jeremy Rifkin notes his beliefthat evolution overwhelms this law of physics with a "magical power":

The Entropy Law says that evolution dissipates the overall available energyfor life on this planet. Our concept of evolution is the exact opposite. We be-lieve that evolution somehow magically creates greater overall value andorder on earth.142

These words well indicate that evolution is a dogmatic belief ratherthan a scientific thesis.

The Myth of the "Open System"Some proponents of evolution have recourse to an argument that the

second law of thermodynamics holds true only for "closed systems", andthat "open systems" are beyond the scope of this law.

An "open system" is a thermodynamic system in which energy andmatter flow in and out. Evolutionists hold that the world is an open sys-tem: that it is constantly exposed to an energy flow from the sun, that thelaw of entropy does not apply to the world as a whole, and that ordered,complex living beings can be generated from disordered, simple, and inan-imate structures.

However, there is an obvious distortion here. The fact that a systemhas an energy inflow is not enough to make that system ordered. Specificmechanisms are needed to make the energy functional. For instance, a carneeds an engine, a transmission system, and related control mechanisms toconvert the energy in petrol to work. Without such an energy conversionsystem, the car will not be able to use the energy stored in petrol.

The same thing applies in the case of life as well. It is true that life de-rives its energy from the sun. However, solar energy can only be convertedinto chemical energy by the incredibly complex energy conversion systemsin living things (such as photosynthesis in plants and the digestive sys-tems of humans and animals). No living thing can live without such en-ergy conversion systems. Without an energy conversion system, the sun isnothing but a source of destructive energy that burns, parches, or melts.

As may be seen, a thermodynamic system without an energy conver-sion mechanism of some sort is not advantageous for evolution, be it open


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or closed. No one asserts that such complex and conscious mechanismscould have existed in nature under the conditions of the primeval earth.Indeed, the real problem confronting evolutionists is the question of howcomplex energy-converting mechanisms such as photosynthesis in plants,which cannot be duplicated even with modern technology, could havecome into being on their own.

The influx of solar energy into the world would be unable to bringabout order on its own. Moreover, no matter how high the temperaturemay become, amino acids resist forming bonds in ordered sequences. En-ergy by itself is incapable of making amino acids form the much more com-plex molecules of proteins, or of making proteins from the much complexand organised structures of cell organelles. The real and essential source ofthis organisation at all levels is intelligent design: in a word, creation.

The Myth of the "Self Organization of Matter"Quite aware that the second law of thermodynamics renders evolu-

tion impossible, some evolutionist scientists have made speculative at-tempts to square the circle between the two, in order to be able to claimthat evolution is possible. As usual, even those endeavours show that thetheory of evolution faces an inescapable impasse.

One person distinguished by his efforts to marry thermodynamics andevolution is the Belgian scientist Ilya Prigogine. Starting out from chaos the-ory, Prigogine proposed a number of hypotheses in which order developsfrom chaos (disorder). He argued that some open systems can portray a de-crease in entropy due to an influx of outer energy and the outcoming "order-ing" is a proof that "matter can organise itself." Since then, the concept of the"self-organization of matter" has been quite popular among evolutionists andmaterialists. They act like they have found a materialistic origin for the com-plexity of life and a materialistic solution for the problem of life's origin.

But a closer look reveals that this argument is totally abstract and infact just wishful thinking. Moreover, it includes a very naive deception.The deception lies in the deliberate confusing of two distinct concepts, "or-dered" and "organised." 143

We can make this clear with an example. Imagine a completely flatbeach on the seashore. When a strong wave hits the beach, mounds ofsand, large and small, form bumps on the surface of the sand.

This is a process of "ordering": The seashore is an open system and the

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energy flow (the wave) that enters it can form simple patterns in the sand,which look completely regular. From the thermodynamic point of view, itcan set up order here where before there was none. But we must make itclear that those same waves cannot build a castle on the beach. If we see acastle there, we are in no doubt that someone has constructed it, becausethe castle is an "organised" system. In other words, it possesses a clear de-sign and information. Every part of it has been made by a conscious entityin a planned manner.

The difference between the sand and the castle is that the former is anorganised complexity, whereas the latter possesses only order, broughtabout by simple repetitions. The order formed from repetitions is as if anobject (in other words the flow of energy entering the system) had fallen onthe letter "a" on a typewriter keyboard, writing "aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa" hun-dreds of times. But the string of "a"s in an order repeated in this mannercontains no information, and no complexity. In order to write a complexchain of letters actually containing information (in other words a meaning-ful sequence, paragraph or book), the presence of intelligence is essential.

The same thing applies when wind blows into a dusty room. When thewind blows in, the dust which had been lying in an even layer may gather inone corner of the room. This is also a more ordered situation than that whichexisted before, in the thermodynamic sense, but the individual specks of dustcannot form a portrait of someone on the floor in an organised manner.

This means that complex, organised systems can never come about asthe result of natural processes. Although simple examples of order canhappen from time to time, these cannot go beyond limits.

But evolutionists point to this self-ordering which emerges throughnatural processes as a most important proof of evolution, portray suchcases as examples of "self-organization". As a result of this confusion ofconcepts, they propose that living systems could develop their own accordfrom occurrences in nature and chemical reactions. The methods and stud-ies employed by Prigogine and his followers, which we considered above,are based on this deceptive logic.

The American scientists Charles B. Thaxton, Walter L. Bradley andRoger L. Olsen, in their book titled The Mystery of Life's Origin, explain thisfact as follows:

...In each case random movements of molecules in a fluid are spontaneouslyreplaced by a highly ordered behavior. Prigogine, Eigen, and others have


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suggested that a similar sort of self-organization may be intrinsic in organicchemistry and can potentially account for the highly complex macromole-cules essential for living systems. But such analogies have scant relevance tothe origin-of-life question. A major reason is that they fail to distinguish be-tween order and complexity... Regularity or order cannot serve to store thelarge amount of information required by living systems. A highly irregular,but specified, structure is required rather than an ordered structure. This is aserious flaw in the analogy offered. There is no apparent connection betweenthe kind of spontaneous ordering that occurs from energy flow through suchsystems and the work required to build aperiodic information-intensivemacromolecules like DNA and protein.144

In fact even Prigogine himself has accepted that the theories he hasproduced for the molecular level do not apply to living systems-for in-stance, a living cell:

The problem of biological order involves the transition from the molecularactivity to the supermolecular order of the cell. This problem is far frombeing solved.145

So why do evolutionists continue to believe in scenarios such as the"self organization of matter", which have no scientific foundation? Whyare they so determined to reject the intelligence and planning that soclearly can be seen in living systems? The answer is that they have a dog-matic faith in materialism and they believe that matter has some mysteri-ous power to create life. A professor of chemistry from New YorkUniversity and DNA expert, Robert Shapiro, explains this belief of evolu-tionists about the "self-organization of matter" and the materialist dogmalying at its heart as follows:

Another evolutionary principle is therefore needed to take us across the gapfrom mixtures of simple natural chemicals to the first effective replicator. Thisprinciple has not yet been described in detail or demonstrated, but it is antici-pated, and given names such as chemical evolution and self-organization ofmatter. The existence of the principle is taken for granted in the philosophy ofdialectical materialism, as applied to the origin of life by Alexander Oparin.146

All this situation clearly demonstrates that evolution is a dogma that isagainst emprical science and the origin of living beings can only be ex-plained by the intervention of a supernatural power. That supernaturalpower is the creation of God, who created the entire universe from nothing.Science has proven that evolution is still impossible as far as thermodynam-ics is concerned and the existence of life has no explanation but Creation.

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Design and Coincidence


In the previous chapter, we have examined how impossible the acci-dental formation of life is. Let us again ignore these impossibilities forjust a moment. Let us suppose that millions of years ago a cell was

formed which had acquired everything necessary for life, and that it duly"came to life". Evolution again collapses at this point. For even if this cellhad existed for a while, it would eventually have died and after its death,nothing would have remained, and everything would have reverted towhere it had started. This is because this first living cell, lacking any ge-netic information, would not have been able to reproduce and start a newgeneration. Life would have ended with its death.

The genetic system does not only consist of DNA. The followingthings must also exist in the same environment: enzymes to read the codeon the DNA, messenger RNA to be produced after reading these codes, aribosome to which messenger RNA will attach according to this code,transfer RNA to transfer the amino acids to the ribosome for use in pro-duction, and extremely complex enzymes to carry out numerous interme-diary processes. Such an environment cannot exist anywhere apart from aatotally isolated and completely controlled environment such as the cell,where all the essential raw materials and energy resources exist.

As a result, organic matter can self-reproduce only if it exists as a fullydeveloped cell with all its organelles and in an appropriate environmentwhere it can survive, exchange materials, and get energy from its sur-roundings. This means that the first cell on earth was formed "all of a sud-den" together with its incredibly complex structure.

So, if a complex structure came into existence all of a sudden, whatdoes this mean?

Let us ask this question with an example. Let us liken the cell to a high-tech car in terms of its complexity. (In fact, the cell is a much more complexand developed system than a car with its engine and all its technical equip-ment.) Now let us ask the following question: What would you think if you

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Design and Coincidence 157

went out hiking in the depths of a thick forest and ran across a brand-newcar among the trees? Would you imagine that various elements in the foresthad come together by chance over millions of years and produced such avehicle? All the parts in the car are made of products such as iron, copper,and rubber-the raw ingredients for which are all found on the earth-butwould this fact lead you to think that these materials had synthesised "bychance" and then come together and manufactured such a car?

There is no doubt that anyone with a sound mind would realise thatthe car was the product of an intelligent design-in other words, a factory-and wonder what it was doing there in the middle of the forest. The sud-den emergence of a complex structure in a complete form, quite out of theblue, shows that this is the work of an intelligent agent. A complex systemlike the cell is no doubt created by a superior will and wisdom. In otherwords, it came into existence as a creation of God.

Believing that pure chance can produce perfect designs goes well be-yond the bounds of reason. Yet, every "explanation put forward by the the-ory of evolution regarding the origin of life is like that. One outspokenauthority on this issue is the famous French zoologist Pierre-Paul Grassé,the former president of the French Academy of Sciences. Grassé is a mate-rialist, yet he acknowledges that Darwinist theory is unable to explain lifeand makes a point about the logic of "coincidence", which is the backboneof Darwinism:

The opportune appearance of mutations permitting animals and plants tomeet their needs seems hard to believe. Yet the Darwinian theory is evenmore demanding: A single plant, a single animal would require thousandsand thousands of lucky, appropriate events. Thus, miracles would becomethe rule: events with an infinitesimal probability could not fail to occur…There is no law against daydreaming, but science must not indulge in it.147

Grasse summarises what the concept of "coincidence" means for evo-lutionists: "...Chance becomes a sort of providence, which, under thecover of atheism, is not named but which is secretly worshipped."148

The logical failure of evolutionists is an outcome of their enshriningthe concept of coincidence. In the Qur'an, it is written that those who wor-ship beings other than God are devoid of understanding;

They have hearts wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they seenot, and ears wherewith they hear not. They are like cattle - nay more mis-guided: for they are heedless (of warning). (Surat al-Araf : 179)

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Darwinian Formula!Besides all the technical evidence we have dealt with so far, let us now

for once, examine what kind of a superstition the evolutionists have withan example so simple as to be understood even by children:

Evolutionary theory asserts that life is formed by chance. Accordingto this claim, lifeless and unconscious atoms came together to form the celland then they somehow formed other living things, including man. Let usthink about that. When we bring together the elements that are the build-ing-blocks of life such as carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium,only a heap is formed. No matter what treatments it undergoes, thisatomic heap cannot form even a single living being. If you like, let us for-mulate an "experiment" on this subject and let us examine on the behalf ofevolutionists what they really claim without pronouncing loudly underthe name "Darwinian formula":

Let evolutionists put plenty of materials present in the composition ofliving beings such as phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, iron, andmagnesium into big barrels. Moreover, let them add in these barrels anymaterial that does not exist under normal conditions, but they think asnecessary. Let them add in this mixture as many amino acids-which haveno possibility of forming under natural conditions-and as many proteins-asingle one of which has a formation probability of 10-950-as they like. Letthem expose these mixtures to as much heat and moisture as they like. Letthem stir these with whatever technologically developed device they like.Let them put the foremost scientists beside these barrels. Let these expertswait in turn beside these barrels for billions, and even trillions of years. Letthem be free to use all kinds of conditions they believe to be necessary fora human's formation. No matter what they do, they cannot produce fromthese barrels a human, say a professor that examines his cell structureunder the electron microscope. They cannot produce giraffes, lions, bees,canaries, horses, dolphins, roses, orchids, lilies, carnations, bananas, or-anges, apples, dates, tomatoes, melons, watermelons, figs, olives, grapes,peaches, peafowls, pheasants, multicoloured butterflies, or millions ofother living beings such as these. Indeed, they could not obtain even a sin-gle cell of any one of them.

Briefly, unconscious atoms cannot form the cell by coming together.They cannot take a new decision and divide this cell into two, then take

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other decisions and create the professors who first invent the electron mi-croscope and then examine their own cell structure under that microscope.Matter is an unconscious, lifeless heap, and it comes to life with God'ssuperior creation.

Evolutionary theory, which claims the opposite, is a total fallacy com-pletely contrary to reason. Thinking even a little bit on the claims of tevo-lutionists discloses this reality, just as in the above example.

Technology In The Eye and The EarAnother subject that remains unanswered by evolutionary theory is

the excellent quality of perception in the eye and the ear. Before passing on to the subject of the eye, let us briefly answer the

question of "how we see". Light rays coming from an object fall oppositelyon the retina of the eye. Here, these light rays are transmitted into electricsignals by cells and they reach a tiny spot at the back of the brain called thecentre of vision. These electric signals are perceived in this centre of thebrain as an image after a series of processes. With this technical back-ground, let us do some thinking.

The brain is insulated from light. That means that the inside of thebrain is solid dark, and light does not reach the location where the brain issituated. The place called the centre of vision is a solid dark place where nolight ever reaches; it may even be the darkest place you have ever known.However, you observe a luminous, bright world in this pitch darkness.

The image formed in the eye is so sharp and distinct that even thetechnology of the 20th century has not been able to attain it. For instance,look at the book you read, your hands with which you hold it, then liftyour head and look around you. Have you ever seen such a sharp and dis-tinct image as this one at any other place? Even the most developed televi-sion screen produced by the greatest television producer in the worldcannot provide such a sharp image for you. This is a three-dimensional,coloured, and extremely sharp image. For more than 100 years, thousandsof engineers have been trying to achieve this sharpness. Factories, hugepremises were established, much research has been done, plans and de-signs have been made for this purpose. Again, look at a TV screen and thebook you hold in your hands. You will see that there is a big difference insharpness and distinction. Moreover, the TV screen shows you a two-di-

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mensional image, whereas with your eyes, you watch a three-dimensionalperspective having depth. When you look carefully, you will see that thereis a blurring in the television, is there any blurring in your vision? Surelythere is not.

For many years, ten of thousands of engineers have tried to make athree-dimensional TV, and reach the vision quality of the eye. Yes, theyhave made a three-dimensional television system but it is not possible towatch it without putting on glasses; moreover, it is only an artificial three-dimension. The background is more blurred, the foreground appears like apaper setting. Never has it been possible to produce a sharp and distinctvision like that of the eye. In both the camera and the television, there is aloss of image quality.

Evolutionists claim that the mechanism producing this sharp and dis-tinct image has been formed by chance. Now, if somebody told you thatthe television in your room was formed as a result of chance, that all itsatoms just happened to come together and make up this device that pro-duces an image, what would you think? How can atoms do what thou-sands of people cannot?

When we compare the eye and the ear

with cameras and sound recorders, we

see that the eye and the ear are far more

complex, functional, and perfect than

those technological products.

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Design and Coincidence 161

For nearly a century, tens of thousands of engineers have been re-searching and striving in high-tech laboratories and great industrial com-plexes using the most advanced technological devices, and they have beenable to do no more than this.

If a device producing a more primitive image than the eye could nothave been formed by chance, then it is very evident that the eye and theimage seen by the eye could not have been formed by chance. It requires amuch more detailed and wise plan and design than the one in the TV. Theplan and design of the image as distinct and sharp as this one belongs toGod, Who has power over all things.

The same situation applies to the ear. The outer ear picks up the avail-able sounds by the auricle and directs them to the middle ear; the middleear transmits the sound vibrations by intensifying them; the inner earsends these vibrations to the brain by translating them into electric signals.Just as with the eye, the act of hearing finalises in the centre of hearing inthe brain.

The situation in the eye is also true for the ear. That is, the brain is in-sulated from sound just like it is from light: it does not let any sound in.Therefore, no matter how noisy is the outside, the inside of the brain iscompletely silent. Nevertheless, the sharpest sounds are perceived in thebrain. In your brain, which is insulated from sound, you listen to the sym-phonies of an orchestra, and hear all the noises in a crowded place. How-ever, if the sound level in your brain was measured by a precise device atthat moment, it would be seen that a complete silence is prevailing there.

Let us again compare the high quality and superior technology pre-sent in the ear and the brain with the technology produced by human be-ings. As is the case with imagery, decades of effort have been spent intrying to generate and reproduce sound that is faithful to the original. Theresults of these efforts are sound recorders, high-fidelity systems, and sys-tems for sensing sound. Despite all this technology and the thousands ofengineers and experts who have been working in this endeavour, nosound has yet been obtained that has the same sharpness and clarity as thesound perceived by the ear. Think of the highest-quality HI-FI systemsproduced by the biggest company in the music industry. Even in these de-vices, when sound is recorded some of it is lost; or when you turn on theHI-FI you always hear a hissing sound before the music starts. However,

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the sounds that are the products of the technology of the human body areextremely sharp and clear. A human ear never perceives a sound accompa-nied by a hissing sound or with atmospherics as a HI-FI does; it perceivesthe sound exactly as it is, sharp and clear. This is the way it has been sincethe creation of man.

Briefly, the technology in our body is far superior to the technologymankind has produced using its accumulated information, experience,and opportunities. No one would say that a HI-FI or a camera came intobeing as a result of chance. So how can it be claimed that the technologiesthat exist in the human body, which are superior even to these, could havecome into being as a result of a chain of coincidences called evolution?

It is evident that the eye, the ear, and indeed all the other parts of thehuman body are products of a very superior creation. These are crystal-clear indications of God's unique and unmatched creation, of His eternalknowledge and might.

The reason we specifically mention the senses of seeing and hearinghere is the inability of evolutionists to understand evidence of creation soclear as this. If, one day, you ask an evolutionist to explain to you how thisexcellent design and technology became possible in the eye and the ear asa result of chance, you will see that he will not be able to give you any rea-sonable or logical reply. Even Darwin, in his letter to Asa Gray on April3rd 1860, wrote that "the thought of the eye made him cold all over" andhe confessed the desperation of the evolutionists in the face of the excellentdesign of living things.149

The Theory of Evolution is the Most Potent Spell in the WorldThroughout this book it has been explained that the theory of evolu-

tion lacks any scientific evidence and that on the contrary, scientific proofsfrom such branches of science such as paleontology, microbiology andanatomy reveal it to be a bankrupt theory. It has been stressed that evolu-tion is incompatible with scientific discoveries, reason and logic.

It needs to be made clear that anyone free of prejudice and the influ-ence of any particular ideology, who uses only his reason and logic, willclearly understand that belief in the theory of evolution, which brings tomind the superstitions of societies with no knowledge of science or civi-lization, is quite impossible.


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As has been explained above, those who believe in the theory of evo-lution think that a few atoms and molecules thrown into a huge vat couldproduce thinking, reasoning professors, university students, scientistssuch as Einstein and Galileo, artists such as Humphrey Bogart, Frank Sina-tra and Pavarotti, as well as antelopes, lemon trees and carnations. More-over, the scientists and professors who believe in this nonsense areeducated people. That is why it is quite justifiable to speak of the theory ofevolution as "the most potent spell in history." Never before has any otherbelief or idea so taken away peoples' powers of reason, refused to allowthem to think intelligently and logically and hidden the truth from them asif they had been blindfolded. This is an even worse and unbelievableblindness than the Egyptians worshipping the Sun God Ra, totem worshipin some parts of Africa, the people of Saba worshipping the Sun, the tribeof the Prophet Abraham worshipping idols they had made with their ownhands or the people of the Prophet Moses worshipping the Golden Calf.

In fact, this situation is a lack of reason God points out in the Qur'an.He reveals in many verses that some peoples' minds will be closed andthat they will be powerless to see the truth. Some of these verses are as fol-lows:

As for those who disbelieve, it makes no difference to them whether youwarn them or do not warn them, they will not believe. God has sealed uptheir hearts and hearing and over their eyes is a blindfold. They will havea terrible punishment. (Surat al-Baqara: 6-7)

…They have hearts they do not understand with. They have eyes they do notsee with. They have ears they do not hear with. Such people are like cattle.No, they are even further astray! They are the unaware. (Surat al-A'raf: 179)

Even if We opened up to them a door into heaven, and they spent the day as-cending through it, they would only say, "Our eyesight is befuddled! Orrather we have been put under a spell!" (Surat al-Hijr: 14-15)

Words cannot express just how astonishing it is that this spell shouldhold such a wide community in thrall, keep people from the truth, and notbe broken for 150 years. It is understandable that one or a few peoplemight believe in impossible scenarios and claims full of stupidity and il-logicality. However, "magic" is the only possible explanation for peoplefrom all over the world believing that unconscious and lifeless atoms sud-denly decided to come together and form a universe that functions with aflawless system of organization, discipline, reason and consciousness, the

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planet Earth with all its features so perfectly suited to life, and livingthings full of countless complex systems.

In fact, God reveals in the Qur'an in the incident of the Prophet Mosesand Pharaoh that some people who support atheistic philosophies actuallyinfluence others by magic. When Pharaoh was told about the true religion,he told the Prophet Moses to meet with his own magicians. When theProphet Moses did so, he told them to demonstrate their abilities first. Theverses continue:

He said, "You throw." And when they threw, they cast a spell on the people'seyes and caused them to feel great fear of them. They produced an extremelypowerful magic. (Surat al-A'raf: 116)

As we have seen, Pharaoh's magicians were able to deceive everyone,apart from the Prophet Moses and those who believed in him. However,the evidence put forward by the Prophet Moses broke that spell, or "swal-lowed up what they had forged" as the verse puts it.

We revealed to Moses, "Throw down your staff." And it immediately swal-lowed up what they had forged. So the Truth took place and what they didwas shown to be false. (Surat al-A'raf: 117-119)

As we can see from that verse, when it was realised that what thesepeople who had first cast a spell over others had done was just an illusion,they lost all credibility. In the present day too, unless those who under theinfluence of a similar spell believe in these ridiculous claims under theirscientific disguise and spend their lives defending them abandon them,they too will be humiliated when the full truth emerges and the spell isbroken. In fact, Malcolm Muggeridge, an atheist philosopher and sup-porter of evolution admitted he was worried by just that prospect:

I myself am convinced that the theory of evolution, especially the extent towhich it's been applied, will be one of the great jokes in the history books inthe future. Posterity will marvel that so very flimsy and dubious an hypothe-sis could be accepted with the incredible credulity that it has.150

That future is not far off: On the contrary, people will soon see that"chance" is not a god, and will look back on the theory of evolution as theworst deceit and the most terrible spell in the world. That spell is alreadyrapidly beginning to be lifted from the shoulders of people all over theworld. Many people who see the true face of the theory of evolution arewondering with amazement how it was that they were ever taken in by it.


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In previous chapters, we examined the invalidity of the theory of evolu-tion in terms of the bodies of evidence found in fossils and from thestandpoint of molecular biology. In this chapter, we will address a num-

ber of biological phenomena and concepts presented as theoretical evidenceby evolutionists. These topics are particularly important for they show thatthere is no scientific finding that supports evolution and instead reveal theextent of the distortion and hoodwink employed by evolutionists.

Variations and Species Variation, a term used in genetics, refers to a genetic event that causes

the individuals or groups of a certain type or species to possess differentcharacteristics from one another. For example, all the people on earth carrybasically the same genetic information, yet some have slanted eyes, somehave red hair, some have long noses, and others are short of stature, all de-pending on the extent of the variation potential of this genetic information.

Evolutionists predicate the variations within a species as evidence tothe theory. However, variation does not constitute evidence for evolutionbecause variations are but the outcomes of different combinations of al-ready existing genetic information and they do not add any new charac-teristic to the genetic information. The important thing for the theory ofevolution, however, is the question of how brand-new information tomake a brand-new species could come about.

Variation always takes place within the limits of genetic information.In the science of genetics, this limit is called the "gene pool". All of the char-acteristics present in the gene pool of a species may come to light in vari-ous ways due to variation. For example, as a result of variation, varietiesthat have relatively longer tails or shorter legs may appear in a certain

Evolutionist Claims

and the Facts


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species of reptile, since information for both long-legged and short-leggedforms may exist in the gene pool that species. However, variations do nottransform reptiles into birds by adding wings or feathers to them, or bychanging their metabolism. Such a change requires an increase in the ge-netic information of the living thing, which is certainly not possiblethrough variations.

Darwin was not aware of this fact when he formulated his theory. Hethought that there was no limit to variations. In an article he wrote in 1844he stated: "That a limit to variation does exist in nature is assumed bymost authors, though I am unable to discover a single fact on which thisbelief is grounded".151 In The Origin of Species he cited different examplesof variations as the most important evidence for his theory.

For instance, according to Darwin, animal breeders who mated differ-ent varieties of cattle in order to bring about new varieties that producedmore milk, were ultimately going to transform them into a differentspecies. Darwin's notion of "unlimited variation" is best seen in the follow-ing sentence from The Origin of Species:

I can see no difficulty in a race of bears being rendered, by natural selection,more and more aquatic in their habits, with larger and larger mouths, till acreature was produced as monstrous as a whale.152

The reason Darwin cited such a far-fetched example was the primi-tive understanding of science in his day. Since then, in the 20th century, sci-ence has posited the principle of "genetic stability" (genetic homeostasis),based on the results of experiments conducted on living things. This prin-ciple holds that, since all mating attempts carried out to produce new vari-ations have been inconclusive, there are strict barriers among differentspecies of living things. This meant that it was absolutely impossible foranimal breeders to convert cattle into a different species by mating differ-ent variations of them, as Darwin had postulated.

Norman Macbeth, who disproved Darwinism in his book Darwin Re-tried, states:

The heart of the problem is whether living things do indeed vary to an un-limited extent... The species look stable. We have all heard of disappointedbreeders who carried their work to a certain point only to see the animals or

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Evolutionist Claims and the Facts 167

plants revert to where they had started. Despite strenuous efforts for two orthree centuries, it has never been possible to produce a blue rose or a blacktulip.153

Luther Burbank, considered the most competent breeder of all time,expressed this fact when he said, "there are limits to the development pos-sible, and these limits follow a law." 154 The Danish scientist W. L. Jo-hannsen sums the matter up this way:

The variations upon which Darwin and Wallace had placed their emphasiscannot be selectively pushed beyond a certain point, that such a variabilitydoes not contain the secret of 'indefinite departure.155

Antibiotic Resistance and DDT Immunityare not Evidence for EvolutionOne of the biological concepts that evolutionists try to present as evi-

dence for their theory is the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. Many evo-lutionist sources show antibiotic resistance as "an example of thedevelopment of living things by advantageous mutations". A similar claimis also made for the insects which build immunity to insecticides such asDDT.

However, evolutionists are mistaken on this subject too.

DID WHALES EVOLVE FROM BEARS? In The Origin of Species, Darwin asserted that whales had evolved from bears that tried toswim! Darwin mistakenly supposed that the possibilities of variation within a specieswere unlimited. 20th century science has shown this evolutionary scenario to be imagi-nary.

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Antibiotics are "killer molecules" that are produced by micro-organ-isms to fight other micro-organisms. The first antibiotic was penicillin, dis-covered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. Fleming realized that mouldproduced a molecule that killed the Staphylococcus bacterium, and this dis-covery marked a turning point in the world of medicine. Antibiotics de-rived from micro-organisms were used against bacteria and the resultswere successful.

Soon, something new was discovered. Bacteria build immunity to an-tibiotics over time. The mechanism works like this: A large proportion ofthe bacteria that are subjected to antibiotics die, but some others, which arenot affected by that antibiotic, replicate rapidly and soon make up thewhole population. Thus, the entire population becomes immune to antibi-otics.

Evolutionists try to present this as "the evolution of bacteria by adapt-ing to conditions".

The truth, however, is very different from this superficial interpreta-tion. One of the scientists who has done the most detailed research into thissubject is the Israeli biophysicist Lee Spetner, who is also known for hisbook Not by Chance published in 1997. Spetner maintains that the immu-nity of bacteria comes about by two different mechanisms, but neither ofthem constitutes evidence for the theory of evolution. These two mecha-nisms are:

1) The transfer of resistance genes already extant in bacteria. 2) The building of resistance as a result of losing genetic data because

of mutation. Professor Spetner explains the first mechanism in an article published

in 2001:

Some microorganisms are endowed with genes that grant resistance to theseantibiotics. This resistance can take the form of degrading the antibiotic mol-ecule or of ejecting it from the cell... The organisms having these genes cantransfer them to other bacteria making them resistant as well. Although theresistance mechanisms are specific to a particular antibiotic, most pathogenicbacteria have... succeeded in accumulating several sets of genes grantingthem resistance to a variety of antibiotics.156

Spetner then goes on to say that this is not "evidence for evolution":

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The acquisition of antibiotic resistance in this manner... is not the kind thatcan serve as a prototype for the mutations needed to account for Evolution.The genetic changes that could illustrate the theory must not only add infor-mation to the bacterium's genome, they must add new information to thebiocosm. The horizontal transfer of genes only spreads around genes that arealready in some species.157

So, we cannot talk of any evolution here, because no new genetic in-

formation is produced: genetic information that already exists is simply

transferred between bacteria.

The second type of immunity, which comes about as a result of muta-

tion, is not an example of evolution either. Spetner writes:

...A microorganism can sometimes acquire resistance to an antibiotic througha random substitution of a single nucleotide... Streptomycin, which was dis-covered by Selman Waksman and Albert Schatz and first reported in 1944, isan antibiotic against which bacteria can acquire resistance in this way. But al-though the mutation they undergo in the process is beneficial to the microor-ganism in the presence of streptomycin, it cannot serve as a prototype for thekind of mutations needed by NDT [Neo Darwinian Theory]. The type of mu-tation that grants resistance to streptomycin is manifest in the ribosome anddegrades its molecular match with the antibiotic molecule. This change in thesurface of the microorganism's ribosome prevents the streptomycin moleculefrom attaching and carrying out its antibiotic function. It turns out that thisdegradation is a loss of specificity and therefore a loss of information. Themain point is that (Evolution) cannot be achieved by mutations of this sort,no matter how many of them there are. Evolution cannot be built by accumu-lating mutations that only degrade specificity.158

To sum up, a mutation impinging on a bacterium's ribosome makes

that bacterium resistant to streptomycin. The reason for this is the "decom-

position" of the ribosome by mutation. That is, no new genetic information is

added to the bacterium. On the contrary, the structure of the ribosome is de-

composed, that is to say, the bacterium becomes "disabled". (Also, it has

been discovered that the ribosome of the mutated bacterium is less func-

tional than that of normal bacterium). Since this "disability" prevents the an-

tibiotic from attaching onto the ribosome, "antibiotic resistance" develops.

Finally, there is no example of mutation that "develops the genetic in-


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The same situation holds true for the immunity that insects developto DDT and similar insecticides. In most of these instances, immunitygenes that already exist are used. The evolutionist biologist FranciscoAyala admits this fact, saying, "The genetic variants required for resistanceto the most diverse kinds of pesticides were apparently present in everyone of the populations exposed to these man-made compounds."159 Someother examples explained by mutation, just as with the ribosome mutationmentioned above, are phenomena that cause "genetic information deficit"in insects.

In this case, it cannot be claimed that the immunity mechanisms inbacteria and insects constitute evidence for the theory of evolution. That isbecause the theory of evolution is based on the assertion that living thingsdevelop through mutations. However, Spetner explains that neither antibi-otic immunity nor any other biological phenomena indicate such an exam-ple of mutation:

The mutations needed for macroevolution have never been observed. Norandom mutations that could represent the mutations required by Neo-Dar-winian Theory that have been examined on the molecular level have addedany information. The question I address is: Are the mutations that have beenobserved the kind the theory needs for support? The answer turns out to beNO!160

The Fallacy of Vestigial OrgansFor a long time, the concept of "vestigial organs" appeared frequently

in evolutionist literature as "evidence" of evolution. Eventually, it wassilently put to rest when this was proved to be invalid. But some evolu-tionists still believe in it, and from time to time someone will try to ad-vance "vestigial organs" as important evidence of evolution.

The notion of "vestigial organs" was first put forward a century ago.As evolutionists would have it, there existed in the bodies of some crea-tures a number of non-functional organs. These had been inherited fromprogenitors and had gradually become vestigial from lack of use.

The whole assumption is quite unscientific, and is based entirely oninsufficient knowledge. These "non-functional organs" were in fact organswhose "functions had not yet been discovered". The best indication of thiswas the gradual yet substantial decrease in evolutionists' long list of vesti-

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gial organs. S.R. Scadding, an evolutionist himself, concurred with this factin his article "Can vestigial organs constitute evidence for evolution?" pub-lished in the journal Evolutionary Theory:

Since it is not possible to unambiguously identify useless structures, andsince the structure of the argument used is not scientifically valid, I concludethat "vestigial organs" provide no special evidence for the theory of evolu-tion.161

The list of vestigial organs that was made by the German AnatomistR. Wiedersheim in 1895 included approximately 100 organs, including theappendix and coccyx. As science progressed, it was discovered that all ofthe organs in Wiedersheim's list in fact had very important functions. Forinstance, it was discovered that the appendix, which was supposed to be a"vestigial organ", was in fact a lymphoid organ that fought against infec-tions in the body. This fact was made clear in 1997: "Other bodily organsand tissues-the thymus, liver, spleen, appendix, bone marrow, and smallcollections of lymphatic tissue such as the tonsils in the throat and Peyer'spatch in the small intestine-are also part of the lymphatic system. They toohelp the body fight infection."162

It was also discovered that the tonsils, which were included in thesame list of vestigial organs, had a significant role in protecting the throatagainst infections, particularly until adolescence. It was found that the coc-cyx at the lower end of the vertebral col-umn supports the bones around the pelvisand is the convergence point of some smallmuscles and for this reason, it would not bepossible to sit comfortably without a coc-cyx. In the years that followed, it was re-alised that the thymus triggered theimmune system in the human body by acti-vating the T cells, that the pineal glandwas in charge of the secretion of some im-portant hormones, that the thyroid glandwas effective in providing steady growth inbabies and children, and that the pituitarygland controlled the correct functioning ofmany hormone glands. All of these wereonce conside-red to be "vestigial organs".

All instances of vestigial organshave been disproved in time. Forexample the semicircular fold inthe eye, which was mentioned inthe Origins as a vestigial struc-ture, has been shown to be fullyfunctional in our time, though itsfunction was unknown in Dar-win's time. This organ lubricatesthe eyeball.

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Finally, the semi-lunar fold in the eye, which was referred to as a vestigialorgan by Darwin, has been found in fact to be in charge of cleansing andlubricating the eyeball.

There was a very important logical error in the evolutionist claim re-garding vestigial organs. As we have just seen, this claim was that the ves-tigial organs in living things were inherited from their ancestors. However,some of the alleged "vestigial" organs are not found in the species allegedto be the ancestors of human beings! For example, the appendix does notexist in some ape species that are said to be ancestors of man. The famousbiologist H. Enoch, who challenged the theory of vestigial organs, ex-pressed this logical error as follows:

Apes possess an appendix, whereas their less immediate relatives, the lowerapes, do not; but it appears again among the still lower mammals such asthe opossum. How can the evolutionists account for this?163

Simply put, the scenario of vestigial organs put forward by evolution-ists contains a number of serious logical flaws, and has in any case beenproven to be scientifically untrue. There exists not one inherited vestigialorgan in the human body, since human beings did not evolve from othercreatures as a result of chance, but were created in their current, complete,and perfect form.

The Myth of hom*ologyStructural similarities between different species are called "hom*ol-

ogy" in biology. Evolutionists try to present those similarities as evidencefor evolution.

Darwin thought that creatures with similar (hom*ologous) organs hadan evolutionary relationship with each other, and that these organs musthave been inherited from a common ancestor. According to his assump-tion, both pigeons and eagles had wings; therefore, pigeons, eagles, and in-deed all other birds with wings were supposed to have evolved from acommon ancestor.

hom*ology is a deceptive argument, advanced on the basis of no otherevidence than an apparent physical resemblance. This argument has neveronce been verified by a single concrete discovery in all the years since Dar-win's day. Nowhere in the world has anyone come up with a fossil remainof the imaginary common ancestor of creatures with hom*ologous struc-tures. Furthermore, the following issues make it clear that hom*ology pro-

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vides no evidence that evolution ever occurred.1. One finds hom*ologous organs in creatures belonging to completely

different phyla, among which evolutionists have not been able to establishany sort of evolutionary relationship;

2. The genetic codes of some creatures that have hom*ologous organsare completely different from one another.

3. The embryological development of hom*ologous organs in differentcreatures is completely different.

Let us now examine each of these points one by one.

Similar Organs in Entirely Different Living SpeciesThere are a number of hom*ologous organs shared by different groups

among which evolutionists cannot establish any kind of evolutionary rela-tionship. Wings are one example. In addition to birds, we find wings onbats, which are mammals, and on insects and even on some dinosaurs,which are extinct reptiles. Not even evolutionists posit an evolutionary re-lationship or kinship among those four different groups of animals.

Another striking example is the amazing resemblance and the struc-tural similarity observed in the eyes of different creatures. For example, theoctopus and man are two extremely different species, between which noevolutionary relationship is likely even to be proposed, yet the eyes of bothare very much alike in terms of their structure and function. Not even evolu-tionists try to account for the similarity of the eyes of the octopus and manby positing a common ancestor. These and numerous other examples showthat the evolutionist claim based on resemblances is completely unscientific.

In fact, hom*ologous organs should be a great embarrassment for evo-lutionists. The famous evolutionist Frank Salisbury's confessions revealedin his statements on how extremely different creatures came to have verysimilar eyes underscores the impasse of hom*ology:

Even something as complex as the eye has appeared several times; for ex-ample, in the squid, the vertebrates, and the arthropods. It's bad enough ac-counting for the origin of such things once, but the thought of producingthem several times according to the modern synthetic theory makes myhead swim.164

There are many creatures which, despite their very similar physicalmake-up, do not permit any claims of evolutionary relationship. Two largemammal categories, placentals and marsupials, are an example. Evolution-

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ists consider this distinction to have come about when mammals first ap-peared, and that each group lived its own evolutionary history totally in-dependent of the other. But it is interesting that there are "pairs" inplacentals and marsupials which are nearly the same. The American biolo-gists Dean Kenyon and Percival Davis make the following comment:

According to Darwinian theory, the pattern for wolves, cats, squirrels,ground hogs, anteaters, moles, and mice each evolved twice: once in placen-tal mammals and again, totally independently, in marsupials. This amountsto the astonishing claim that a random, undirected process of mutation andnatural selection somehow hit upon identical features several times in widelyseparated organisms.165

Extraordinary resemblances and similar organs like these, which evo-lutionist biologists cannot accept as examples of "hom*ology," show thatthere is no evidence for the thesis of evolution from a common ancestor.

The Genetic and Embryological Impasse of hom*ologyIn order for the evolutionist claim concerning "hom*ology" to be taken

seriously, similar (hom*ologous) organs in different creatures should alsobe coded with similar (hom*ologous) DNA codes. However, they are not.Similar organs are usually governed by very different genetic (DNA)codes. Furthermore, similar genetic codes in the DNA of different creaturesare often associated with completely different organs.

Michael Denton, an Australian professor of biochemistry, describes inhis book Evolution: A Theory in Crisis the genetic impasse of the evolution-ist interpretation of hom*ology: "hom*ologous structures are often speci-fied by non-hom*ologous genetic systems and the concept of hom*ologycan seldom be extended back into embryology." 166

A famous example on this subject is the "five digit skeletal structure"of quadrupeds which is quoted in almost all evolutionist textbooks.Quadrupeds, i.e., land-living vertebrates, have five digits on their fore-and hindlimbs. Although these do not always have the appearance of fivedigits as we know them, they are all counted as pentadactyl due to theirbone structure. The fore- and hindlimbs of a frog, a lizard, a squirrel or amonkey all have this same structure. Even the bone structures of birds andbats conform to this basic design.

Evolutionists claim that all living things descended from a commonancestor, and they have long cited pentadactyl limb as evidence of this.

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Evolutionist Claims and the Facts 175

This claim was mentioned in almost all basic sources on biology through-out the 20th century as very strong evidence for evolution. Genetic find-ings in the 1980s refuted this evolutionist claim. It was realised that thepentadactyl limb patterns of different creatures are controlled by totallydifferent genes. Evolutionist biologist William Fix describes the collapse ofthe evolutionist thesis regarding pentadactylism in this way:

The older text-books on evolution make much of the idea of hom*ology, point-ing out the obvious resemblances between the skeletons of the limbs of dif-ferent animals. Thus the "pentadactyl" limb pattern is found in the arm of aman, the wing of a bird, and the flipper of a whale, and this is held to indicatetheir common origin. Now if these various structures were transmitted bythe same gene couples, varied from time to time by mutations and actedupon by environmental selection, the theory would make good sense. Unfor-tunately this is not the case. hom*ologous organs are now known to be pro-duced by totally different gene complexes in the different species. Theconcept of hom*ology in terms of similar genes handed on from a commonancestor has broken down...167

Another point is that in order for the evolutionary thesis regardinghom*ology to be taken seriously, the periods of similar structures' embry-ological development-in other words, the stages of development in the eggor the mother's womb-would need to be parallel, whereas, in reality, theseembryological periods for similar structures are quite different from eachother in every living creature.

To conclude, we can say that genetic and embryological research hasproven that the concept of hom*ology defined by Darwin as "evidence ofthe evolution of living things from a common ancestor" can by no meansbe regarded as any evidence at all. In this respect, science can be said tohave proven the Darwinist thesis false time and time again.

Invalidity of the Claim of Molecular hom*ologyEvolutionists' advancement of hom*ology as evidence for evolution is

invalid not only at the morphological level, but also at the molecular level.Evolutionists say that the DNA codes, or the corresponding protein struc-tures, of different living species are similar, and that this similarity is evi-dence that these living species have evolved from common ancestors, orelse from each other.

In truth, however, the results of molecular comparisons do not workin favour of the theory of evolution at all. There are huge molecular differ-

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ences between creatures that appear to be very similar and related. For in-stance, the cytochrome-C protein, one of the proteins vital to respiration, isincredibly different in living beings of the same class. According to re-search carried out on this matter, the difference between two different rep-tile species is greater than the difference between a bird and a fish or a fishand a mammal. Another study has shown that molecular differences be-tween some birds are greater than the differences between those same birdsand mammals. It has also been discovered that the molecular difference be-tween bacteria that appear to be very similar is greater than the differencebetween mammals and amphibians or insects.168 Similar comparisons havebeen made in the cases of haemoglobin, myoglobin, hormones, and genesand similar conclusions are drawn.169

Concerning these findings in the field of molecularbiology, Dr. Michael Denton comments:

Each class at a molecular level is unique, isolated andunlinked by intermediates. Thus, molecules, like fos-sils, have failed to provide the elusive intermediates solong sought by evolutionary biology… At a molecularlevel, no organism is "ancestral" or "primitive" or "ad-vanced" compared with its relatives… There is littledoubt that if this molecular evidence had been availablea century ago… the idea of organic evolution mightnever have been accepted.170

In the 1990s, research into the genetic codes of living things worsenedthe quandary faced by the theory of evolution in this regard. In these ex-periments, instead of the earlier comparisons that were limited to proteinsequences, "ribosomal RNA" (rRNA) sequences were compared. Fromthese findings, evolutionist scientists sought to establish an "evolutionarytree". However, they were disappointed by the results. According to a 1999article by French biologists Hervé Philippe and Patrick Forterre, "withmore and more sequences available, it turned out that most protein pyhlo-genies contradict each other as well as the rRNA tree." 171

Besides rRNA comparisons, the DNA codes in the genes of livingthings were also compared, but the results have been the opposite of the"tree of life" presupposed by evolution. Molecular biologists James A.Lake, Ravi Jain and Maria C. Rivera elaborated on this in an article in 1999:

"Scientists started analyzing a variety of genes from different organisms and


Professor MichaelDenton: "Evolution

is a theory in crisis"

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found that their relationship to each other contradicted the evolutionary treeof life derived from rRNA analysis alone." 172

Neither the comparisons that have been made of proteins, nor thoseof rRNAs or of genes, confirm the premises of the theory of evolution. CarlWoese, a highly reputed biologist from the University of Illinois admitsthat the concept of "phylogeny" has lost its meaning in the face of molecu-lar findings in this way:

No consistent organismal phylogeny has emerged from the many individ-ual protein phylogenies so far produced. Phylogenetic incongruities can beseen everywhere in the universal tree, from its root to the major branchingswithin and among the various (groups) to the makeup of the primary group-ings themselves." 173

The fact that results of molecular comparisons are not in favour of,but rather opposed to, the theory of evolution is also admitted in an articlecalled "Is it Time to Uproot the Tree of Life?" published in Science in 1999.This article by Elizabeth Pennisi states that the genetic analyses and com-parisons carried out by Darwinist biologists in order to shed light on the"tree of life" actually yielded directly opposite results, and goes on to saythat "new data are muddying the evolutionary picture":

A year ago, biologists looking over newly sequenced genomes from morethan a dozen microorganisms thought these data might support the acceptedplot lines of life's early history. But what they saw confounded them. Com-parisons of the genomes then available not only didn't clarify the picture ofhow life's major groupings evolved, they confused it. And now, with an ad-ditional eight microbial sequences in hand, the situation has gotten evenmore confusing.... Many evolutionary biologists had thought they couldroughly see the beginnings of life's three kingdoms... When full DNA se-quences opened the way to comparing other kinds of genes, researchers ex-pected that they would simply add detail to this tree. But "nothing could befurther from the truth," says Claire Fraser, head of The Institute for GenomicResearch (TIGR) in Rockville, Maryland. Instead, the comparisons haveyielded many versions of the tree of life that differ from the rRNA tree andconflict with each other as well...174

In short, as molecular biology advances, the hom*ology concept losesmore ground. Comparisons that have been made of proteins, rRNAs andgenes reveal that creatures which are allegedly close relatives according tothe theory of evolution are actually totally distinct from each other. A 1996study using 88 protein sequences grouped rabbits with primates instead of

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rodents; a 1998 analysis of 13 genes in 19 animal species placed sea urchinsamong the chordates; and another 1998 study based on 12 proteins putcows closer to whales than to horses. Molecular biologist Jonathan Wellssums up the situation in 2000 in this way:

Inconsistencies among trees based on different molecules, and the bizarretrees that result from some molecular analyses, have now plunged molecularphylogeny into a crisis.175

The Myth of Embryological RecapitulationWhat used to be called the "recapitulation theory" has long been elim-

inated from scientific literature, but it is still being presented as a scientificreality by some evolutionist publications. The term "recapitulation" is acondensation of the dictum "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny", put for-ward by the evolutionist biologist Ernst Haeckel at the end of the 19th cen-tury.

This theory of Haeckel's postulates that living embryos re-experiencethe evolutionary process that their pseudo-ancestors underwent. He theo-rised that during its development in its mother's womb, the human em-bryo first displayed the characteristics of a fish,and then those of a reptile, and finally those of ahuman.

It has since been proven that this theory iscompletely bogus. It is now known that the "gills"that supposedly appear in the early stages of thehuman embryo are in fact the initial phases of themiddle-ear canal, parathyroid, and thymus. Thepart of the embryo that was likened to the "eggyolk pouch" turns out to be a pouch that producesblood for the infant. The part that had been identi-fied as a "tail" by Haeckel and his followers is infact the backbone, which resembles a tail only be-cause it takes shape before the legs do.

These are universally acknowledged facts inthe scientific world, and are accepted even byevolutionists themselves. George Gaylord Simp-son, one of the founders of neo-Darwinism,writes:


Haeckel was an evolutionisteven more ardent than Dar-

win in many respects. Forthis reason, he did not hesi-tate to distort the scientific

data and devise variousforgeries.

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Haeckel misstated the evolutionary principle involved. It is now firmly es-tablished that ontogeny does not repeat phylogeny.176

In an article published in American Scientist, we read:Surely the biogenetic law is as dead as a doornail. It was finally exorcisedfrom biology textbooks in the fifties. As a topic of serious theoretical inquiryit was extinct in the twenties…177

Another interesting aspect of "recapitulation" was Ernst Haeckel him-self, a faker who falsified his drawings in order to support the theory headvanced. Haeckel's forgeries purported to show that fish and human em-bryos resembled one another. When he was caught out, the only defencehe offered was that other evolutionists had committed similar offences:

After this compromising confession of "forgery" I should be obliged toconsider myself condemned and annihilated if I had not the consolation ofseeing side by side with me in the prisoners' dock hundreds of fellow cul-prits, among them many of the most trusted observers and most esteemed bi-ologists. The great majority of all the diagrams in the best biologicaltextbooks, treatises and journals would incur in the same degree the chargeof "forgery", for all of them are inexact, and are more or less doctored,schematised and constructed.178

There are indeed "hundreds of fellow culprits, among them many ofthe most trusted observers and most esteemed biologists" whose studiesare full of prejudiced conclusions, distortions, and even forgeries. This isbecause they have all conditioned themselves to champion evolutionarytheory although there is not a shred of scientific evidence supporting it.

Evolutionist Claims and the Facts 179

Once defined as an inheritance from

past ancestors, the folds on the human embryos

are now redefined. It has been shown that human

embryos do not recapitulate evolutionary

history of man.


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The Theory of Evolution:

A Materialistic Liability


The information we have considered throughout this book hasshown us that the theory of evolution has no scientific basis, andthat, on the contrary, evolutionist claims conflict with scientific

facts. In other words, the force that keeps evolution alive is not science.Evolution may be maintained by some "scientists", but behind it there isanother influence at work.

This other influence is materialist philosophy. Materialist philosophy is one of the oldest beliefs in the world, and as-

sumes the existence of matter as its basic principle. According to this view,matter has always existed, and everything that exists consists of matter.This makes belief in a Creator impossible, of course, because if matter hasalways existed, and if everything consists of matter, then there can be nosuprematerial Creator who created it. Materialism has therefore long beenhostile to religious beliefs of every kind that have faith in God.

So the question becomes one of whether the materialist point of viewis correct. One method of testing whether a philosophy is true or false is toinvestigate the claims it makes about science by using scientific methods.For instance, a philosopher in the 10th century could have claimed thatthere was a divine tree on the surface of the moon and that all living thingsactually grew on the branches of this huge tree like fruit, and then fell offonto the earth. Some people might have found this philosophy attractiveand believed in it. But in the 20th century, at a time when man has man-aged to walk on the moon, it is no longer possible to seriously hold such abelief. Whether such a tree exists there or not can be determined by scien-tific methods, that is, by observation and experiment.

We can therefore investigate by means of scientific methods the mate-rialist claim: that matter has existed for all eternity and that this matter canorganise itself without a supramaterial Creator and cause life to begin.When we do this, we see that materialism has already collapsed, because

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the idea that matter has existed since beginning of time has been over-thrown by the Big Bang theory which shows that the universe was cre-ated from nothingness. The claim that matter organised itself and createdlife is the claim that we call "the theory of evolution" -which this book hasbeen examining-and which has been shown to have collapsed.

However, if someone is determined to believe in materialism andputs his devotion to materialist philosophy before everything else, then hewill act differently. If he is a materialist first and a scientist second, he willnot abandon materialism when he sees that evolution is disproved by sci-ence. On the contrary, he will attempt to uphold and defend materialismby trying to support evolution, no matter what. This is exactly the predica-ment that evolutionists defending the theory of evolution find themselvesin today.

Interestingly enough, they also confess this fact from time to time. Awell-known geneticist and outspoken evolutionist, Richard C. Lewontinfrom Harvard University, confesses that he is "a materialist first and a sci-entist second" in these words:

It is not that the methods and institutions of science somehow compel us ac-cept a material explanation of the phenomenal world, but, on the contrary,that we are forced by our a priori adherence to material causes to create anapparatus of investigation and a set of concepts that produce material expla-nations, no matter how counter-intuitive, no matter how mystifying to theuninitiated. Moreover, that materialism is absolute, so we cannot allow aDivine Foot in the door.179

The term "a priori" that Lewontin uses here is quite important. Thisphilosophical term refers to a presupposition not based on any experimen-tal knowledge. A thought is "a priori" when you consider it to be correctand accept it as so even if there is no information available to confirm it. Asthe evolutionist Lewontin frankly states, materialism is an "a priori" com-mitment for evolutionists, who then try to adapt science to this preconcep-tion. Since materialism definitely necessitates denying the existence of aCreator, they embrace the only alternative they have in hand, which is thetheory of evolution. It does not matter to such scientists that evolution hasbeen belied by scientific facts, because they have accepted it "a priori" astrue.

This prejudiced behaviour leads evolutionists to a belief that "uncon-scious matter composed itself", which is contrary not only to science, but

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also to reason. Professor of chemistry from New York University and aDNA expert Robert Shapiro, as we have quoted before, explains this beliefof evolutionists and the materialist dogma lying at its base as follows:

Another evolutionary principle is therefore needed to take us across the gapfrom mixtures of simple natural chemicals to the first effective replicator.This principle has not yet been described in detail or demonstrated, but it isanticipated, and given names such as chemical evolution and self-organiza-tion of matter. The existence of the principle is taken for granted in thephilosophy of dialectical materialism, as applied to the origin of life byAlexander Oparin.180

Evolutionist propaganda, which we constantly come across in theWestern media and in well-known and "esteemed" science magazines, isthe outcome of this ideological necessity. Since evolution is considered tobe indispensable, it has been turned into a sacred cow by the circles that setthe standards of science.

Some scientists find themselves in a position where they are forcedto defend this far-fetched theory, or at least avoid uttering any wordagainst it, in order to maintain their reputations. Academics in the West-ern countries have to have articles published in certain scientific journalsto attain and hold onto their professorships. All of the journals dealingwith biology are under the control of evolutionists, and they do not allowany anti-evolutionist article to appear in them. Biologists, therefore, haveto conduct their research under the domination of this theory. They, too,are part of the established order, which regards evolution as an ideologicalnecessity, which is why they blindly defend all the "impossible coinci-dences" we have been examining in this book.

Materialist ConfessionsThe German biologist Hoimar von Ditfurth, a prominent evolutionist,

is a good example of this bigoted materialist understanding. After Ditfurthcites an example of the extremely complex composition of life, this is whathe says concerning the question of whether it could have emerged bychance or not:

Is such a harmony that emerged only out of coincidences possible in reality?This is the basic question of the whole of biological evolution. Answering thisquestion as "Yes, it is possible" is something like verifying faith in the modernscience of nature. Critically speaking, we can say that somebody who accepts


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the modern science of nature has no other alternative than to say "yes", be-cause he aims to explain natural phenomena by means that are understand-able and tries to derive them from the laws of nature without reverting tosupernatural interference. However, at this point, explaining everything bymeans of the laws of nature, that is, by coincidences, is a sign that he hasnowhere else to turn. Because what else could he do other than believe in co-incidences?181

Yes, as Ditfurth states, the materialist scientific approach adopts as itsbasic principle explaining life by denying "supernatural interference", i.e.creation. Once this principle is adopted, even the most impossible scenar-ios are easily accepted. It is possible to find examples of this dogmatic

The Theory of Evolution: A Materialistic Liability 183

The only reason that Darwin's theory is still defended despite its obvious refuta-tion by science is the close link between that theory and materialism. Darwin ap-plied materialist philosophy to the natural sciences and the advocates of this

philosophy, Marxists being foremost among them, go on defending Darwinism no mat-ter what.

One of the most famous contemporary champions of the theory of evolution, thebiologist Douglas Futuyma, wrote: "Together with Marx's materialistic theory of his-tory… Darwin's theory of evolution was a crucial plank in the platform of mechanismand materialism." This is a very clear admission of why the theory of evolution is really

so important to its defenders.1

Another famous evolutionist, the paleontologist Stephen J. Gould said: "Darwin

applied a consistent philosophy of materialism to his interpretation of nature".2 LeonTrotsky, one of the masterminds of the Russian Communist Revolution along withLenin, commented: "The discovery by Darwin was the highest triumph of the dialectic

in the whole field of organic matter."3 However, science has shown that Darwinismwas not a victory for materialism but rather a sign of that philosophy's overthrow.

Trotsky Darwin Marx

1- Douglas Futuyma, Evolutionary Biology, 2nd ed., Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, 1986, p. 3 2- Alan Woods and Ted Grant, "Marxism and Darwinism", Reason in Revolt: Marxism and

Modern Science, London, 19933- Alan Woods and Ted Grant. "Marxism and Darwinism", London, 1993


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mentality in almost all evolutionist literature. Professor Ali Demirsoy, thewell-known advocate of evolutionary theory in Turkey, is just one of many.As we have already pointed out, according to Demirsoy: the probability ofthe coincidental formation of cythochrome-C, an essential protein for life,is "as unlikely as the possibility of a monkey writing the history of hu-manity on a typewriter without making any mistakes".182

There is no doubt that to accept such a possibility is actually to rejectthe basic principles of reason and common sense. Even one single correctlyformed letter written on a page makes it certain that it was written by aperson. When one sees a book of world history, it becomes even more cer-tain that the book has been written by an author. No logical person wouldagree that the letters in such a huge book could have been put together "bychance".

However, it is very interesting to see that the "evolutionist scientist"Professor Ali Demirsoy accepts this sort of irrational proposition:

In essence, the probability of the formation of a cytochrome-C sequence is aslikely as zero. That is, if life requires a certain sequence, it can be said that thishas a probability likely to be realised once in the whole universe. Otherwisesome metaphysical powers beyond our definition must have acted in its for-mation. To accept the latter is not appropriate for the scientific goal. Wethus have to look into the first hypothesis.183

Demirsoy writes that he prefers the impossible, in order "not to haveto accept supernatural forces"-in other words, the existence of a Creator. Itis clear that this approach has no relation whatsoever with science. Notsurprisingly, when Demirsoy cites another subject-the origins of the mito-chondria in the cell-he openly accepts coincidence as an explanation, eventhough it is "quite contrary to scientific thought".

The heart of the problem is how the mitochondria have acquired this feature,because attaining this feature by chance even by one individual, requires ex-treme probabilities that are incomprehensible... The enzymes providing res-piration and functioning as a catalyst in each step in a different form make upthe core of the mechanism. A cell has to contain this enzyme sequence com-pletely, otherwise it is meaningless. Here, despite being contrary to biologi-cal thought, in order to avoid a more dogmatic explanation or speculation,we have to accept, though reluctantly, that all the respiration enzymes com-pletely existed in the cell before the cell first came in contact with oxygen.184

The conclusion to be drawn from such pronouncements is that evolu-tion is not a theory arrived at through scientific investigation. On the con-

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C onstituting as it does thephilosophical underpinnings

of the theory of evolution, 19th-century materialism suggestedthat the universe existed sinceeternity, that it was not created,and that the organic world couldbe explained in terms of the inter-actions of matter. The discoveries

of 20th-century science however have com-pletely invalidated these hypotheses.

The supposition that the universe has ex-isted since eternity was blown away by thediscovery that the universe originated from agreat explosion (the so-called "Big Bang") thattook place nearly 15 billion years ago. The BigBang shows that all physical substances inthe universe came into being out of nothing: inother words, they were created. One of theforemost advocates of materialism, the atheistphilosopher Anthony Flew concedes:

Notoriously, confession is good for the soul. Iwill therefore begin by confessing that theStratonician atheist has to be embarressedby the contemporary cosmological consen-sus (Big Bang). For it seems that the cosmol-ogists are providing a scientific proof ... thatthe universe had a beginning.1

The Big Bang also shows that at each stage,the universe was shaped by a controlled cre-ation. This is made clear by the order thatcame about after the Big Bang, which was tooperfect to have been formed from an uncon-trolled explosion. The famous physician PaulDavies explains this situation:

It is hard to resist the impression that the pre-sent structure of the universe, apparently sosensitive to minor alterations in the numbers,has been rather carefully thought out... Theseeming miraculous concurrence of numeri-cal values that nature has assigned to herfundamental constants must remain the mostcompelling evidence for an element of cos-mic design.2

The same reality makes an American pro-fessor of astronomy, George Greenstein, say:

As we survey all the evidence, the thought in-sistently arises that some supernaturalagency -or rather Agency- must be involved.3

Thus, the materialistic hypothesis that lifecan be explained solely in terms of the interac-tions of matter also collapsed in the face of thethe discoveries of science. In particular, theorigin of the genetic information that deter-mines all living things can by no means be ex-plained by any purely material agent. One ofthe leading defenders of the theory of evolu-tion, George C. Williams, admits this fact in anarticle he wrote in 1995:

Evolutionist biologists have failed to realizethat they work with two more or less incom-mensurable domains: that of information andthat of matter... the gene is a package of infor-mation, not an object... This dearth descrip-tors makes matter and information twoseparate domains of existence, which have tobe discussed separately, in their own terms.4

This situation is evidence for the existenceof a supra-material Wisdom that makes ge-netic information exist. It is impossible formatter to produce information within itself.The director of the German Federal Institute ofPhysics and Technology, Proffessor WernerGitt, remarks:

All experiences indicate that a thinking beingvoluntarily exercising his own free will, cog-nition, and creativity, is required. There is noknown law of nature, no known process andno known sequence of events which cancause information to originate by itself inmatter.5

All these scientific facts illustrate that a Cre-ator Who has external power and knowledge,that is, God, creates the universe and all livingthings. As for materialism, Arthur Koestler,one of the most renowned philosophers of ourcentury says: "It can no longer claim to be ascientific philosophy"6

The Death of Materialism

1- Henry Margenau, Roy A. Vargesse. Cosmos, Bios, Theos. La Salle IL: Open Court Publishing, 1992, p. 241

2- Paul Davies. God and the New Physics. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983, p. 189

3- Hugh Ross. The Creator and the Cosmos. Colorado Springs, CO: Nav-Press, 1993, pp. 114-15

4- George C. Williams. The Third Culture: Beyond the Scientific Revolution, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1995,pp. 42-43

5- Werner Gitt. In the Beginning Was Information. CLV, Bielefeld, Germany, p. 107, 141

6- Arthur Koestler, Janus: A Summing Up, New York, Vintage Books, 1978, p. 250

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trary, the form and substance of this theory were dictated by the require-ments of materialistic philosophy. It then turned into a belief or dogma inspite of concrete scientific facts. Again, we can clearly see from evolution-ist literature that all of this effort has a "purpose"-and that purpose pre-cludes any belief that all living things were not created no matter what theprice.

Evolutionists define this purpose as "scientific". However, what theyrefer to is not science but materialist philosophy. Materialism absolutelyrejects the existence of anything "beyond" matter (or of anything supernat-ural). Science itself is not obliged to accept such a dogma. Science meansexploring nature and deriving conclusions from one's findings. If thesefindings lead to the conclusion that nature is created, science has to acceptit. That is the duty of a true scientist; not defending impossible scenariosby clinging to the outdated materialist dogmas of the 19th century.

Materialists, False Religion and True ReligionSo far, we have examined how the circles devoted to materialist phi-

losophy derange science, how they deceive people for the sake of the evo-lutionist fables that they blindly believe, and how they veil realities. Thatsaid, we also have to admit that these materialist circles perform a signifi-cant "service", though unintentionally.

They carry out this "service", by which they seek to justify their ownuntrue and atheist thoughts, by exposing all the senselessness and incon-sistencies of the traditionalist and bigoted thought that poses in the nameof Islam. The offences of the materialist-atheist circle have helped revealthe false religion which has no relation whatsoever with the Qur'an orIslam; which depends on hearsay, superstition, and idle talk; and whichhas no consistent argument to put forth. Thus, all the inconsistencies, dis-crepancies, and illogic of the false religion defended by those insincere cir-cles that wrongly act in the name of Islam without relying on validevidence are exposed.

Thus materialists help many people realise the gloom of the bigotedand traditional mentality and encourage them to seek the essence and realsource of religion by referring to and adhering to the Qur'an. Although un-intentionally, they obey God's command and serve His religion. Further-more, they disclose all the simplicity of the mentality that presents a false


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religion invented in the name of God and proffered as Islam to all and theyhelp weaken the sway of this bigoted system that threatens the bulk of so-ciety.

Thus willy-nilly and in accordance with their fate, they become themeans whereby the decree of God about His upholding His true religionby causing the antagonists of religion counteract against each other ismade true. God's law is stated in the Qur'an as follows;

And did not God check one set of people by means of another, the earth

would indeed be full of mischief. (Surat al-Baqara, 251)

At this point, we think it necessary to leave an open door for some ad-vocates of the evolutionist materialist thought. These people might oncehave set out on an honest quest, yet have been driven away from the truereligion under the influence of the idle talk produced in the name of Islam,falsehoods fabricated in the name of the Prophet, and hearsay stories towhich they have been subject since their childhood and thus never havehad the chance to discover the truth themselves. They might have learnedreligion from books by opponents of religion who try to identify Islamwith falsehoods and fallacies that are not present in the Qur'an, and withthe traditionalism and bigotry. The essence and origin of Islam are quitedifferent and, moreover, completely incompatible with all that has beentaught to them. For this reason, we suggest they get a Qur'an as soon aspossible and read God's book with an open heart and a conscientious andunprejudiced view and learn the original religion from its true source. Ifthey need assistance, they can refer to the books written by the author ofthis book, Harun Yahya, on the basic concepts in the Qur'an.

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As what we have examined so far has demonstrated, the theory ofevolution rests on no scientific basis. However most peoplearound the world are unaware of this and assume that evolution

is a scientific fact. The biggest reason for this deception is the systematic in-doctrination and propaganda conducted by the media about evolution.For this reason, we also have to mention the particular characteristics ofthis indoctrination and propaganda.

When we look at the Western media carefully, we frequently comeacross news dwelling on the theory of evolution. Leading media organisa-tions, and well-known and "respectable" magazines periodically bring thissubject up. When their approach is examined, one gets the impression thatthis theory is an absolutely proven fact leaving no room for discussion.

Ordinary people reading this kind of news naturally start to thinkthat the theory of evolution is a fact as certain as any law of mathematics.News of this sort that appears in the prominent media engines is alsopicked up by local media. They print headlines in big fonts: "According toTime magazine, a new fossil that completes the gap in the fossil chain hasbeen found"; or "Nature" indicates that scientists have shed light on thefinal issues of evolutionary theory". The finding of "the last missing link ofthe evolution chain" means nothing because there is not a single thingproven about evolution. Everything shown as evidence is false as we havedescribed in the previous chapters. In addition to the media, the sameholds true for scientific resources, encyclopaedias, and biology books.

In short, both the media and academic circles, which are at the dis-posal of anti-religionist power-centres, maintain an entirely evolutionistview and they impose this on society. This imposition is so effective that ithas in time turned evolution into an idea that is never to be rejected. Deny-ing evolution is seen as being contradictory to science and as disregardingfundamental realities. This is why, notwithstanding so many deficiencies

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that have so far been revealed (especially since the 1950s) and the fact that

these have been confessed by evolutionist scientists themselves, today it is

all but impossible to find any criticism of evolution in scientific circles or in

the media.

Widely accepted as the most "respected" publishing vehicles on biol-

ogy and nature in the West, magazines such as Scientific American, Nature,

Focus, and National Geographic adopt the theory of evolution as an official

ideology and try to present this theory as a proven fact.

Popular science magazines havingtaken over the leader-ship of evolution pro-paganda, play animportant role in en-couraging the publicto accept the theory ofevolution.


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Wrapped-up LiesEvolutionists make great use of the advantage given to them by the

"brain-washing" program of the media. Many people believe in evolutionso unconditionally that they do not even bother to ask "how" and "why".This means that evolutionists can package their lies so as to be easily per-suasive.

For instance, even in the most "scientific" evolutionist books the "tran-sition from water to land", which is one of the greatest unaccounted-forphenomena of evolution, is "explained" with ridiculous simplicity. Accord-ing to evolution, life started in water and the first developed animals were

Evolution is, as once noted by a prominent scientist, a fairy tale for adults. It is atotally irrational and unscientific scenario, which suggests that non-living mat-ter has some sort of a magical power and intelligence to create complex life

forms. This long tale has some very interesting fables on some particular subjects. Oneof these curious evolutionary fables is the one about the "evolution of whale" that waspublished in National Geographic, widely respected as one of the most scientific andserious publications in the world:

The Whale's ascendancy to sovereign size apparently began sixty million years agowhen hairy, four-legged mammals, in search of food or sanctuary, ventured intowater. As eons passed, changes slowly occurred. Hind legs disappeared, front legschanged into flippers, hair gave way to a thick smooth blanket of blubber, nostrilsmoved to the top of the head, the tail broadened into flukes, and in the buoyantwater world the body became enormous.1

Besides the fact that there is not a single scientific basis for any of this, such an oc-currence is also contrary to the principles of nature. This fable published in NationalGeographic is noteworthy for being indicative of the extent of the fallacies of seeminglyserious evolutionist publications.

Another fable from evolutionists worth noting is on the origin of mammals. Evolu-tionists argue that mammals originated from a reptilian ancestor. But when it comes toexplain the details of this alleged transformation, interesting narratives arise. Here isone of them:

Some of the reptiles in the colder regions began to develop a method of keepingtheir bodies warm. Their heat output increased when it was cold and their heat losswas cut down when scales became smaller and more pointed, and evolved into fur.Sweating was also an adaptation to regulate the body temperature, a device to coolthe body when necessary by evaporation of water. But incidentally the young ofthese reptiles began to lick the sweat of the mother for nourishment. Certain sweatglands began to secrete a richer and richer secretion, which eventually becamemilk. Thus the young of these early mammals had a better start in life.2

The idea that a well-designed food like milk could originate from sweat glands andall the other details above are just bizarre productions of evolutionary imagination, withno scientific basis.

1- Victor B. Scheffer, "Exploring the Lives of Whales", National Geographic, vol. 50, December 1976, p. 752

2- George Gamow, Martynas Ycas, Mr. Tompkins Inside Himself, London: Allen & Unwin, 1968, p. 149


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fish. The theory has it that one day these fish started to fling themselves onto the land for some reason or other, (most of the time, drought is said to bethe reason), and the fish that chose to live on land, happened to have feetinstead of fins, and lungs instead of gills.

Most evolutionist books do not tell the "how" of the subject. Even inthe most "scientific" sources, the absurdity of this assertion is concealed be-hind sentences such as "the transfer from water to land was achieved".

How was this "transfer" achieved? We know that a fish cannot live formore than a few minutes out of water. If we suppose that the allegeddrought occurred and the fish had to move towards the land, what wouldhave happened to the fish? The response is evident. All of the fish comingout of the water would die one by one in a few minutes. Even if this processhad had lasted for a period of ten million years, the answer would still be thesame: fish would die one by one. The reason is that such a complex organ asa complete lung cannot come into being by a sudden "accident", that is, bymutation; but half a lung, on the other hand, is of no use at all.

But this is exactly what the evolutionists propose. "Transfer fromwater to land", "transfer from land to air" and many more alleged leapsare "explained" in these illogical terms. As for the formation of really com-plex organs such as the eye and ear, evolutionists prefer not to say any-thing at all.

It is easy to influence the man on the street with the package of "sci-ence". You draw an imaginary picture representing transfer from water toland, you invent Latin words for the animal in the water, its "descendant"on land, and the "transitional intermediary form" (which is an imaginaryanimal), and then fabricate an elaborate lie: "Eusthenopteron transformedfirst into Rhipitistian Crossoptergian, then Ichthyostega in a long evolutionaryprocess". If you put these words in the mouth of a scientist with thickglasses and a white coat, you would succeed in convincing many people,because the media, which dedicates itself to promoting evolution, wouldannounce the good news to the world with great enthusiasm.

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There is much other evidence, as well as scientific laws, invalidatingevolution, but in this book we have only been able to discuss someof them. Even those should be enough to reveal a most important

truth: Although it is cloaked in the guise of science, the theory of evolutionis nothing but a deceit: a deceit defended only for the benefit of materialis-tic philosophy; a deceit based not on science but on brainwashing, propa-ganda, and fraud.

We can summarise what we have noted so far as follows:

The Theory of Evolution has CollapsedThe theory of evolution is a theory that fails at the very first step. The

reason is that evolutionists are unable to explain even the formation of asingle protein. Neither the laws of probability nor the laws of physics andchemistry offer any chance for the fortuitous formation of life.

Does it sound logical or reasonable when not even a single chance-formed protein can exist, that millions of such proteins combined in anorder to produce the cell of a living thing; and that billions of cells man-aged to form and then came together by chance to produce living things;and that from them generated fish; and that those that passed to landturned into reptiles, birds, and that this is how all the millions of differentspecies on earth were formed?

Even if it does not seem logical to you, evolutionists do believe thisfable.

However, it is merely a belief-or rather a faith-because they do nothave even a single piece of evidence to verify their story. They have neverfound a single transitional form such as a half-fish/half-reptile or half-rep-tile/half-bird. Nor have they been able to prove that a protein, or even asingle amino acid molecule composing a protein, could have formedunder what they call primordial earth conditions; not even in their elabo-


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rately-equipped laboratories have they succeeded in doing that. On thecontrary, with their every effort, evolutionists themselves have demon-strated that no evolutionary process has ever occurred nor could ever haveoccurred at any time on earth.

Evolution Can Not Be Verified in the Future EitherSeeing this, evolutionists can only console themselves by dreaming

that science will somehow resolve all these dilemmas in time. However,that science should ever verify such an entirely groundless and illogicalclaim is out of the question no matter how many years may pass by. On thecontrary, as science progresses it only makes the nonsense of evolutionists'claims clearer and plainer.

That is how it has been so far. As more details on the structure andfunctions of the living cell were discovered, it became abundantly clearthat the cell is not a simple, randomly-formed composition, as was thoughtto be the case according to the primitive biological understanding of Dar-win's time.

With the situation being so self-evident, denying the fact of creationand basing the origins of life on extremely unlikely coincidences, and thendefending these claims with insistence, may later become a source of greathumiliation. As the real face of the evolution theory comes more and moreinto view and as public opinion comes to see the truth, it may not be longbefore the purblind fanatic advocates of evolution will not be able to showtheir faces.

The Biggest Obstacle to Evolution: SoulThere are many species in the world that resemble one another. For

instance, there may be many living beings resembling a horse or a cat andmany insects may look like one another. These similarities do not surpriseanyone.

The superficial similarities between man and ape somehow attracttoo much attention. This interest sometimes goes so far as to make somepeople believe the false thesis of evolution. As a matter of fact, the superfi-cial similarities between men and apes do signify nothing. The rhinocerosbeetle and the rhinoceros also share certain superficial resemblances but itwould be ludicrous to seek to establish some kind of an evolutionary link

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between these two creatures, one being an insect and the other a mammal,on the grounds of that resemblance.

Other than superficial similarity, apes cannot be said to be closer toman than to other animals. Actually, if level of intelligence is considered,then the honeybee producing the geometrically miraculous structure of thehoneycomb or the spider building up the engineering miracle of the spiderweb can be said to be closer to man. They are even superior in some aspects.

There is a very big difference between man and ape regardless of amere outward resemblance. An ape is an animal and is no different from ahorse or a dog considering its level of consciousness. Yet man is a con-scious, strong-willed being that can think, talk, understand, decide, andjudge. All of these features are the functions of the soul that man possesses.The soul is the most important difference that interposes a huge gap be-tween man and other creatures. No physical similarity can close this gapbetween man and any other living being. In nature, the only living thingthat has a soul is man.

God Creates According to His WillWould it matter if the scenario proposed by evolutionists really had

taken place? Not a bit. The reason is that each stage advanced by evolu-tionary theory and based on coincidence could only have occurred as a re-sult of a miracle. Even if life did come about gradually through such asuccession of stages, each progressive stage could only have been broughtabout by a conscious will. It is not just implausible that those stages couldhave occurred by chance, it is impossible.

If is said that a protein molecule had been formed under the primor-dial atmospheric conditions, it has to be remembered that it has been al-ready demonstrated by the laws of probability, biology, and chemistry thatthis could not have been by chance. But if it must be posited that it wasproduced, then there is no alternative but to admit that it owed its exis-tence to the will of a Creator. The same logic applies to the entire hypothe-sis put forward by evolutionists. For instance, there is neitherpaleontological evidence nor a physical, chemical, biological, or logicaljustification proving that fish passed from water to land and formed theland animals. But if one must have it that fish clambered onto the land andturned into reptiles, the maker of that claim should also accept the exis-


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Conclusion: Evolution Is a Deceit 195

tence of a Creator capable of making whatever He wills come into beingwith the mere word "be". Any other explanation for such a miracle is in-herently self-contradictory and a violation of the principles of reason.

The reality is clear and evident. All life is the product of a perfect de-sign and a superior creation. This in turn provides concrete evidence forthe existence of a Creator, the Possessor of infinite power, knowledge, andintelligence.

That Creator is God, the Lord of the heavens and of the earth, and ofall that is between them.

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The Fact of Creation


In the previous sections of the book, we examined why the Theory ofEvolution, which proposes that life was not created, is a fallacy com-pletely contrary to scientific facts. We saw that modern science has re-

vealed a very explicit fact through certain branches of science such aspaleontology, biochemistry, and anatomy. This fact is that God creates all liv-ing beings.

In fact, to notice this fact one does not necessarily need to appeal to thecomplicated results obtained in biochemistry laboratories or geological exca-vations. The signs of an extraordinary wisdom are discernible in whateverliving being one observes. There is a great technology and design in thebody of an insect or a tiny fish in the depths of the sea never attained byhuman beings. Some living beings which even do not have a brain perfectlyperform so complicated tasks as not to be accomplished even by human be-ings.

This great wisdom, design and plan that prevails overall in nature, pro-vides solid evidence for the existence of a supreme Creator dominating overthe whole of nature, and this Creator is God. God has furnished all living be-ings with extraordinary features and showed men the evident signs of Hisexistence and might.

In the following pages, we will examine only a few of the countless ev-idences of Creation in nature.

Honey Bees and the Architectural Wonders of HoneycombsBees produce more honey than they actually need and store it in honey-

combs. The hexagonal structure of the honeycomb is well-known to every-one. Have you ever wondered why bees construct hexagonal honeycombsrather than octagonal, or pentagonal?

Mathematicians looking for answer to this question reached an interest-ing conclusion: "A hexagon is the most appropriate geometric form for themaximum use of a given area."

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A hexagonal cell requires the minimum amount ofwax for construction while it stores the maximum amount

of honey. So the bee uses the most appropriate form possi-ble.

The method used in the construction of the honeycombis also very amazing: bees start the construction of the hive

from two-three different places and weave the honeycomb simultaneouslyin two-three strings. Though they start from different places, the bees, greatin number, construct identical hexagons and then weave the honeycomb bycombining these together and meeting in the middle. The junction points ofthe hexagons are assembled so deftly that there is no sign of their being sub-sequently combined.

In the face of this extraordinary performance, we, for sure, have toadmit the existence of a superior will that ordains these creatures. Evolution-ists want to explain away this achievement with the concept of "instinct" andtry to present it as a simple attribute of the bee. However, if there is an in-stinct at work, if this rules over all bees and provides that all bees work inharmony though uninformed of one another, then it means that there is anexalted Wisdom that rules over all these tiny creatures.

To put it more explicitly, God, the creator of these tiny creatures, "in-spires" them with what they have to do. This fact was declared in the Qur'anfourteen centuries ago:

And your Sustainer has inspired the honey bee: "Prepare for yourselfdwellings in mountains and in trees, and in what (men) build; and then eatof all manner of fruit, and find with skill the spacious paths of your Sus-

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tainer". There issues from within their bodies adrink of varying colours, wherein is healingfor men: verily in this is a Sign for thosewho give thought. (Surat an-Nahl, 68-69)

Amazing Architects: TermitesNo one can help being taken by sur-

prise upon seeing a termite nest erectedon the ground by termites. This is becausethe termite nests are architectural wondersthat rise up as high as 5-6 meters. Within thisnest are sophisticated systems to meet all theneeds of termites that can never appear in sunlight be-cause of their body structure. In the nest, there are ventilation systems,canals, larva rooms, corridors, special fungus production yards, safety exits,rooms for hot and cold weather; in brief, everything. What is more astonish-ing is that the termites which construct these wondrous nests are blind.185

Despite this fact, we see, when we compare the size of a termite and itsnest, that termites successfully overcome an architectural project by far 300times bigger than themselves.

Termites have yet another amazing characteristic: if we di-vide a termite nest into two in the first stages of its con-

struction, and then reunite it after a certain while,we will see that all passage-ways, canals androads intersect with each other. Termites carry on

with their task as if they were never separated fromeach other and ordained from a single place.

The Woodpecker Everyone knows that woodpeckers build their

nests by pecking tree trunks. The point many peopledo not consider is how woodpeckers undergo nobrain haemorrhage when they so strongly tattoo with

their head. What the woodpecker does is in a way simi-lar to a human driving a nail in the wall with his head. If

a human ventured to do something like that, he would


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probably undergo a brain shock followed by a brain haemorrhage. A wood-pecker, however, can peck a hard tree trunk 38-43 times between 2.10 and2.69 seconds and nothing happens to it.

Nothing happens because the head structure of woodpeckers are cre-ated as fit for this job. The woodpecker's skull has a "suspension" system thatreduces and absorbs the force of the strokes. There are special softening tis-sues between the bones in its skull.186

The Sonar System of BatsBats fly in pitch dark without trouble and they have a very interesting

navigation system to do this. It is what we call "sonar" system, a systemwhereby the shapes of the surrounding objects are determined according tothe echo of the sound waves.

A young person can barely detect a sound with a frequency of 20,000 vi-brations per second. A bat furnished with a specially designed "sonar sys-tem", however, makes use of sounds having a frequency of between 50,000and 200,000 vibrations per second. It sends these sounds in all directions 20or 30 times each second. The echo of the sound is so powerful that the bat notonly understands the existence of objects in its path, but also detects the lo-cation of its swift-flying prey.187

WhalesMammals regularly need to breathe and for this reason water is not a

very convenient environment for them.In a whale, which is a sea mam-mal, however, this problem is han-dled with a breathing system farmore efficient than that of many land-dwelling animals. Whales breatheout one at a time discharging 90% ofthe air they use. Thus, they need tobreathe only at very long intervals. Atthe same time, they have a highly con-centrated substance called "myoglobin"that helps them store oxygen in theirmuscles. With the help of these systems,

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finback whale, for instance, can dive as deep as 500 meters and swim for 40minutes without breathing at all.188 The nostrils of the whale, on the otherhand, are placed on its back unlike land-dwelling mammals so that it caneasily breathe.

The Design in The GnatWe always think of the gnat as a flying animal. In fact, the gnat spends

its developmental stages under water and gets out from under waterthrough an exceptional "design" being provided with all the organs it needs.

The gnat starts to fly with special sensing systems at its disposal to de-tect the place of its prey. With these systems, it resembles a war plane loadedwith detectors of heat, gas, dampness and odour. It even has an ability to"see in conformity with the temperature" that helps it find its prey even inpitch dark.

The "blood-sucking" technique of the gnat comes with an incrediblycomplex system. With its six-bladed cutting system, it cuts the skin like asaw. While the cutting process goes on, a secretion secreted on the woundbenumbs the tissues and the person does not even realise that his blood is

being sucked. This secretion, at thesame time, prevents the clotting ofthe blood and secures the continu-ance of the sucking process.

With even one of these ele-ments missing, the gnat will not beable to feed on blood and carry onits generation. With its exceptionaldesign, even this tiny creature is anevident sign of Creation on its own.In the Qur'an, the gnat is accentu-

ated as an example displaying the existence of God to the men of under-standing:

Surely God disdains not to set forth any parable - (that of) a (female) gnat orany thing above that; then as for those who believe, they know that it is thetruth from their Lord, and as for those who disbelieve, they say: What is itthat God means by this parable: He causes many to err by it and many Heleads aright by it! but He does not cause to err by it (any) except the trans-gressors, (Surat al-Baqara, 26)


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Hunting Birds with Keen EyesightHunting birds have keen eyes that enable them to make perfect dis-

tance adjustments while they attack their prey. In addition their large eyescontain more vision cells, which means better sight. There are more than onemillion vision cells in the eye of a hunting bird.

Eagles that fly at thousands of meters high have such sharp eyes thatthey can scan the earth perfectly at that distance. Just as war planes detecttheir targets from thousands ofmeters away, so do eagles spottheir prey, perceiving the slightestcolour shift or the slightest move-ment on the earth. The eagle's eyehas an angle of vision of three hun-dred degrees and it can magnify agiven image around six to eighttimes. Eagles can scan an area of30,000 hectares while flying 4,500meters above it. They can easilydistinguish a rabbit hidden amonggrasses from an altitude of 1,500 meters. It is evident that this extraordinaryeye structure of the eagle is specially designed for this creature.

The Thread of the SpiderThe spider named Dinopis has a great skill for hunting. Rather than

weaving a static web and waiting for its prey, it weaves a small yet highlyunusual web that it throws on its prey. Afterwards, it tightly wraps up itsprey with this web. The entrapped insect can do nothing to extricate itself.The web is so perfectly constructed that the insect gets even more entangledas it gets more alarmed. In order to store its food, the spider wraps the preywith extra strands, almost as if it were packaging it.

How does this spider make a web so excellent in its mechanical designand chemical structure? It is impossible for the spider to have acquired sucha skill by coincidence as is claimed by evolutionists. The spider is devoid offaculties such as learning and memorising and does not have even a brain toperform these things. Obviously, this skill is bestowed on the spider by itscreator, God, Who is Exalted in Power.

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Very important miracles are hidden inthe thread of the spiders. This thread, with adiameter of less than one thousandth of amillimetre, is 5 times stronger than a steelwire having the same thickness. This threadhas yet another characteristic of being extremely light. A length of thisthread long enough to encircle the world would weigh only 320 grams.189

Steel, a substance specially produced in industrial works, is one of thestrongest materials manufactured by mankind. However, the spider can pro-duce in its body a far firmer thread than steel. While man produces steel, hemakes use of his centuries-old knowledge and technology; which knowl-edge or technology, then, does the spider use while producing its thread?

As we see, all technological and technical means at the disposalmankind lag behind those of a spider.

Hibernating AnimalsHibernating animals can go on living although their body temperature

falls to the same degree as the cold temperature outside. How do they man-age this?

Mammals are warm-blooded. This means that under normal condi-tions, their body temperature always remains constant because the naturalthermostat in their body keeps on regulating this temperature. However,during hibernation, the normal body heat of small mammals, like the squir-rel rat with a normal body heat of 40 degrees, drops down to a little bit abovethe freezing point as if adjusted by some kind of a key. The body metabolismslows down to a great extent. The animal starts breathing very slowly and itsnormal heartbeat, which is 300 times a minute, falls to 7-10 beats a minute.


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Its normal body reflexes stop and the electrical activities in its brain slowdown almost to undetectability.

One of the dangers of motionlessness is the freezing of tissues in verycold weather and their being destroyed by ice crystals. Hibernating animalshowever are protected against this danger thanks to the special features theyare endowed with. The body fluids of hibernating animals are retained bychemical materials having high molecular masses. Thus, their freezing pointis decreased and they are protected from harm.190

Electrical FishCertain species of some fish types such as electric eel and electric ray

utilise the electricity produced in their bodies either to protect themselvesfrom their enemies or to paralyse their prey. In every living being - includingman - is a little amount of electricity. Man, however, cannot direct this elec-tricity or take it under control to use it for his own benefit. The above-men-tioned creatures, on the other hand, have an electrical current as high as500-600 volts in their bodies and they are able use this against their enemies.Furthermore, they are not adversely affected by this electricity.

The energy they consume to defend themselves is recovered after a cer-tain time like the charging of a battery and electrical power is once againready for use. Fish do not use the high-voltage electricity in their small bod-ies only for defence purposes. Besides providing the means for finding theirway in deep dark waters, electricity also helps them sense objects withoutseeing them. Fish can send signals by using the electricity in their bodies.These electric signals reflect back after hitting solid objects and these reflec-tions give the fish information about the object. This way, fish can determinethe distance and size of the object.191

An Intelligent Plan on Animals: CamouflageOne of the features that animals possess in order to keep living is the art

of hiding themselves-that is, "camouflage". Animals feel the necessity of hiding themselves for two main reasons:

for hunting and for protecting themselves from predators. Camouflage dif-fers from all other methods with its particular involvement of utmost intelli-gence, skill, aesthetics and harmony.

The camouflage techniques of animals are truly amazing. It is almost

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impossible to identify an insect that is hidden in a tree trunk or another crea-ture hidden under a leaf.

Leaf louse that suck the juices of plants feed themselves on plant stalksby pretending to be thorns. By this method, they aim to trick birds, theirbiggest enemies, and ensure that birds will not perch on these plants.

CuttlefishUnder the skin of the cuttlefish is arrayed a dense layer of elastic pig-

ment sacs called chromatophores. They come mainly in yellow, red, blackand brown. At a signal, the cells expand and flood the skin with the appro-priate shade. That is how the cuttlefish takes on the colour of the rock itstands on and makes a perfect camouflage.

This system operates so effectively that the cuttlefish can also create acomplex zebra-like striping.192


Above: Tree louse imitating tree thorns. Right above: A snake concealing itself by suspend-ing itself among leaves. Right below: A caterpillar settled right in the middle of a leaf to go un-noticed.

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Different Vision SystemsFor many sea-dwelling animals, seeing is extremely important for hunt-

ing and defence. Accordingly, most of the sea-dwelling animals areequipped with eyes perfectly designed for underwater.

Under water, the ability to see becomes more and more limited withdepth, especially after 30 meters. Organisms living at this depth, however,have eyes created according to the given conditions.

Sea-dwelling animals, unlike land-dwelling animals, have sphericallenses in perfect accordance with the needs of the density of the water theyinhabit. Compared to the wide elliptical eyes of land-dwelling animals, thisspherical structure is more serviceable for sight under water; it is adjusted tosee objects in close-up. When an object at a greater distance is focused upon,the whole lens system is pulled backwards by the help of a special musclemechanism within the eye.

One other reason why the eyes of the fish are spherical is the refractionof light in water. Because the eye is filled with a liquid having almost thesame density as water, no refraction occurs while an image formed outside isreflected on the eye. Consequently, the eye lens fully focuses the image of theoutside object on the retina. The fish, unlike human beings, sees very sharplyin water.

Some animals like octopus have rather big eyes to compensate for thepoor light in the depths of water. Below 300 meters, big-eyed fish need tocapture the flashes of the surrounding organisms to notice them. They haveto be especially sensitive to the feeble blue light penetrating into the water.For this reason, there are plenty of sensitive blue cells in the retina of theireyes.

The Fact of Creation 205

Left: A cuttlefish that makes itself look like the sandy surface. Right: The bright yellow colour the

same fish turns in case of danger, such as when it is seen by a diver.

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As is understood from these examples, every living being has distinc-tive eyes specially designed to meet its particular needs. This fact proves thatthey are all created just the way they have to be by a Creator Who has eternalwisdom, knowledge and power.

Special Freezing SystemA frozen frog embodies an unusual biological structure. It shows no

signs of life. Its heartbeat, breathing and blood circulation have come com-pletely to a halt. When the ice melts, however, the same frog returns to life asif it is has woken up from sleep.

Normally, a living being in the state of freezing confronts many fatalrisks. The frog, however, does not face any of them. It has the main feature ofproducing plenty of glucose while it is in that state. Just like a diabetic, theblood sugar level of the frog reaches very high levels. It can sometimes go ashigh as 550 milimol/liter. (This figure is normally between 1-5 mmol/litrefor frogs and 4-5 mmol/litre for human body). This extreme glucose concen-tration may cause serious problems in normal times.

In a frozen frog, however, this extreme glucose keeps water from leav-ing cells and prevents shrinkage. The cell membrane of the frog is highlypermeable to glucose so that glucose finds easy access to cells. The high levelof glucose in the body reduces the freezing temperature causing only a verysmall amount of the animal's inner body liquid to turn to ice in the cold. Re-search has showed that glucose can feed frozen cells as well. During this pe-riod, besides being the natural fuel of the body, glucose also stops manymetabolic reactions like urea synthesis and thus prevents different foodsources of the cell from being exhausted.

How does such a high amount of glucose in the frog's body come aboutall of a sudden? The answer is quite interesting: this living being is equippedwith a very special system in charge of this task. As soon as ice appears onthe skin, a message travels to the liver making the liver convert some of itsstored glycogen into glucose. The nature of this message travelling to theliver is still unknown. Five minutes after the message is received, the sugarlevel in the blood steadily starts to increase.193

Unquestionably the animal's being equipped with a system that en-tirely changes its metabolism to meet all of its needs just when it is requiredcan only be possible through the flawless plan of the All-Mighty Creator. Nocoincidence can generate such a perfect and complex system.


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AlbatrossesMigratory birds minimise

energy consumption by using different"flight techniques". Albatrosses are also

observed to have such a flight style. Thesebirds, which spend 92% of their lives on the sea, have wing

spans of up to 3,5 meters. The most important characteristic ofalbatrosses is their flight style: they can fly for hours without

beating their wings at all. To do so, they glide along in the air keep-ing their wings constant by making use of the wind.

It requires a great deal of energy to keep wings with a wing span of 3.5meters constantly open. Albatrosses, however, can stay in this position forhours. This is due to the special anatomical system they are bestowed withfrom the moment of their birth. During flight, the wings of the albatross areblocked. Therefore, it does not need to use any muscular power. Wings arelifted only by muscle layers. This greatly helps the bird during its flight. Thissystem reduces the energy consumed by the bird during flight. The albatrossdoes not use energy because it does not beat its wings or waste energy tokeep its wings outstretched. Flying for hours by making exclusive use ofwind provides an unlimited energy source for it. For instance, a 10-kilo-alba-tross loses only 1% of its body weight while it travels for 1,000 kms. This isindeed a very small rate. Men have manufactured gliders taking albatrossesas a model and by making use of their fascinating flight technique.194

An Arduous MigrationPacific salmon have the exceptional characteristic of returning to the

rivers in which they hatched to reproduce. Having spent part of their lives inthe sea, these animals come back to fresh water to reproduce.

When they start their journey in early summer, the colour of the fish isbright red. At the end of their journey, however, their colour turns black. Atthe outset of their migration, they first draw near to the shore and try toreach rivers. They perseveringly strive to go back to their birthplace. Theyreach the place where they hatched by leaping over turbulent rivers, swim-ming upstream, surmounting waterfalls and dykes. At the end of this 3,500-4,000 km. journey, female salmon readily have eggs just as male salmonshave sperm. Having reached the place where they hatched, female salmon

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lay around 3 to 5 thousand eggs as male salmon fertilise them. The fish suf-fer much damage as a result of this migration and hatching period. Femalesthat lay eggs become exhausted; their tail fins are worn down and their skinstarts to turn black. The same is true also for males. The river soon overflowswith dead salmon. Yet another salmon generation is ready to hatch out andmake the same journey.

How salmon complete such a journey, how they reach the sea after theyhatch, and how they find their way are just some of the questions that re-main to be answered. Although many suggestions are made, no definite so-lution has yet been reached. What is the power that makes salmonundertake a return of thousands of kilometres back to a place unknown tothem? It is obvious that there is a superior Will ruling over and controllingall these living beings. It is God, the Sustainer of all the worlds.

KoalasThe oil found in eucalyptus leaves is poisonous to many mammals.

This poison is a chemical defence mechanism used by eucalyptus treesagainst their enemies. Yet there is a very special living being that gets thebetter of this mechanism and feeds on poisonous eucalyptus leaves: a mar-supial called the koala. Koalas make their homes in eucalyptus trees whilethey also feed on them and obtaintheir water from them.

Like other mammals, koalas alsocannot digest the cellulose present inthe trees. For this, it is dependent oncellulose-digesting micro-organisms.These micro-organisms are heavilypopulated in the convergence pointof small and large intestines, the cae-cum which is the rear extension of theintestinal system. The caecum is themost interesting part of the digestionsystem of the koala. This segmentfunctions as a fermentation chamberwhere microbes are made to digestcellulose while the passage of the


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The Fact of Creation 209

leaves is delayed. Thus, the koala can neutralise the poisonous effect of theoils in the eucalyptus leaves.195

Hunting Ability in Constant PositionThe South African sundew plant entraps insects with its viscous hairs.

The leaves of this plant are full of long, red hairs. The tips of these hairs arecovered with a fluid that has a smell that attracts insects. Another feature ofthe fluid is its being extremely viscous. An insect that makes its way to thesource of the smell gets stuck in these viscous hairs. Shortly afterwards thewhole leaf is closed down on the insect that is already entangled in the hairsand the plant extracts the protein essential for itself from the insect by di-gesting it.196

The endowment of a plant with no possibility of moving from its placewith such a faculty is no doubt the evident sign of a special design. It is im-possible for a plant to have developed such a hunting style out of its ownconsciousness or will, or by way of coincidence. So, it is all the more impos-sible to overlook the existence and might of the Creator Who has furnished itwith this ability.

The Design In Bird FeathersAt first glance, bird feathers seem to have a very simple structure.

When we study them closer, however, we come across the very complexstructure of feathers that are light yet extremely strong and waterproof.

Birds should be as light as possible in order to fly easily. The feathers are

Left: An open Sundew. Right: A closed one.

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made up of keratin proteinskeeping with this need. On bothsides of the stem of a feather areveins and on each vein arearound 400 tiny barbs. On these400 barbs are a total of tinier 800barbs, two on each. Of the 800tinier barbs which are crowdedon a small bird feather, those lo-cated towards the front parthave another 20 barbs on eachof them. These barbs fasten twofeathers to one another just liketwo pieces of cloth tacked up oneach other. In a single featherare approximately 300 milliontiny barbs. The total number ofbarbs in all the feathers of a birdis around 700 billion.

There is a very significantreason for the bird featherbeing firmly interlocked witheach other with barbs and clasps. The feathers should hold tightly on thebird so as not to fall out in any movement whatsoever. With the mechanismmade up of barbs and clasps, the feathers hold so tightly on the bird that nei-ther strong wind, nor rain, nor snow cause them to fall out.

Furthermore, the feathers in the abdomen of the bird are not the sameas the feathers in its wings and tail. The tail is made up of relatively bigfeathers to function as rudder and brakes; wing feathers are designed so asto expand the area surface during the bird's wing beating and thus increasethe lifting force.

Basilisk: The Expert of Walking on WaterFew animals are able to walk on the surface of water. One such rarity is

basilisk, which lives in Central America and is seen below. On the sides ofthe toes of basilisk's hind feet are flaps that enable them to splash water.


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The Fact of Creation 211

These are rolled up when the animal walks on land. If the animal faces dan-ger, it starts to run very fast on the surface of a river or a lake. Then the flapson its hind feet are opened and thus more surface area is provided for it torun on water.197

This unique design of basilisk is one of the evident signs of consciousCreation.

PhotosynthesisPlants unquestionably play a major role in making the universe a habit-

able place. They clean the air for us, keep the temperature of the planet at aconstant level, and balance the proportions of gases in the atmosphere. Theoxygen in the air we breathe is produced by plants. An important part of ourfood is also provided by plants. The nutritional value of plants comes fromthe special design in their cells to which they also owe their other features.

The plant cell, unlike human and animal cells, can make direct use ofsolar energy. It converts the solar energy into chemical energy and stores it innutrients in very special ways. This process is called "photosynthesis". Infact, this process is carried out not by the cell but by chloroplasts, organellesthat give plants their green colour. These tiny green organelles only observ-able by microscope are the only laboratories on earth that are capable of stor-ing solar energy in organic matter.

The amount of matter produced by plants on the earth is around 200billion tons a year. This production is vital to all living things on the earth.

The basilisk

lizard is one

of those rare

animals that

can move

establishing a

balance be-

tween water

and air.

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The production made by plants is realised through a very complicatedchemical process. Thousands of "chlorophyll" pigments found in the chloro-plast react to light in an incredibly short time, something like one thou-sandth of a second. This is why many activities taking place in thechlorophyll have still not been observed.

Converting solar energy into electrical or chemical energy is a very re-cent technological breakthrough. In order to do this, high-tech instrumentsare used. A plant cell so small as to be invisible to the naked human eye hasbeen performing this task for millions of years.

This perfect system displays Creation once more for all to see. The verycomplex system of photosynthesis is a consciously-designed mechanismthat God creates. A matchless factory is squeezed in a minuscule unit area inthe leaves. This flawless design is only one of the signs revealing that God,the Sustainer of all worlds, creates all living things.

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The chapter you are now about to read

reveals a crucial secret of your life. You

should read it very attentively and thoroughly

for it is concerned with a subject that is liable to

make a fundamental change in your outlook

to the external world. The subject of this

chapter is not just a point of view, a different

approach, or a traditional philosophical

thought: it is a fact which everyone, believing

or unbelieving, must admit and which is also

proven by science today.


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People who contemplate their surroundings conscientiously andwisely realise that everything in the universe-both living and non-living-must have been created. So the question becomes that of

"Who is the creator of all these things?"It is evident that "the fact of creation", which reveals itself in every as-

pect of the universe, cannot be an outcome of the universe itself. For exam-ple, a bug could not have created itself. The solar system could not havecreated or organised itself. Neither plants, humans, bacteria, erythrocytes(red-blood corpuscles), nor butterflies could have created themselves. Thepossibility that these all could have originated "by chance" is not evenimaginable.

We therefore arrive at the following conclusion: Everything that wesee has been created. But nothing that we see can be "creators" themselves.The Creator is different from and superior to all that we see with our eyes,a superior power that is invisible but whose existence and attributes are re-vealed in everything that exists.

This is the point at which those who deny the existence of God demur.These people are conditioned not to believe in His existence unless theysee Him with their eyes. These people, who disregard the fact of "creation",are forced to ignore the actuality of "creation" manifested all throughoutthe universe and falsely prove that the universe and the living things in ithave not been created. Evolutionary theory is a key example of their vainendeavours to this end.

The basic mistake of those who deny God is shared by many peoplewho in fact do not really deny the existence of God but have a wrong per-ception of Him. They do not deny creation, but have superstitious beliefsabout "where" God is. Most of them think that God is up in the "sky". Theytacitly imagine that God is behind a very distant planet and interferes with

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"worldly affairs" once in a while. Or perhaps that He does not intervene atall: He created the universe and then left it to itself and people are left todetermine their fates for themselves.

Still others have heard that in the Qur'an it is written that God is"everywhere" but they cannot perceive what this exactly means. They tac-itly think that God surrounds everything like radio waves or like an invis-ible, intangible gas.

However, this notion and other beliefs that are unable to make clear"where" God is (and maybe deny Him because of that) are all based on acommon mistake. They hold a prejudice without any grounds and then aremoved to wrong opinions of God. What is this prejudice?

This prejudice is about the nature and characteristics of matter. We areso conditioned to suppositions about the existence of matter that we neverthink about whether or not it does exist or is only created as an image.Modern science demolishes this prejudice and discloses a very importantand imposing reality. In the following pages, we will try to explain thisgreat reality to which the Qur'an points.

The World Of Electrical SignalsAll the information that we have about the world we live in is con-

veyed to us by our five senses. The world we know of consists of what oureye sees, our hand feels, our nose smells, our tongue tastes, and our earhears. We never think that the "external" world can be other than what oursenses present to us as we have been dependent only on those senses sincethe day of our birth.

Modern research in many different fields of science however points toa very different understanding and creates serious doubt about our sensesand the world that we perceive with them.

The starting-point of this approach is that the notion of an "externalworld" shaped in our brain is only a response formed in our brain by elec-trical signals. The redness of the apple, the hardness of the wood, more-over, your mother, father, your family, and everything that you own, yourhouse, your job, and the lines of this book, are comprised only of electricalsignals.

Frederick Vester explains the point that science has reached on thissubject:


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Statements of some scientists posing that "man is an image, everything expe-rienced is temporary and deceptive, and this universe is a shadow", seems tobe proven by science in our day.198

The famous philosopher George Berkeley's comment on the subject isas follows:

We believe in the existence of objects just because we see and touch them,and they are reflected to us by our perceptions. However, our perceptions areonly ideas in our mind. Thus, objects we captivate by perceptions are nothingbut ideas, and these ideas are essentially in nowhere but our mind… Since allthese exist only in the mind, then it means that we are beguiled by deceptionswhen we imagine the universe and things to have an existence outside themind. So, none of the surrounding things have an existence out of ourmind.199

In order to clarify the subject, let us consider our sense of sight, whichprovides us with the most extensive information about the external world.

How Do We See, Hear, And Taste?The act of seeing is realised in a very progressive way. Light clusters

(photons) that travel from the object to the eye pass through the lens infront of the eye where it is broken and falls reversely on the retina at theback of the eye. Here, the impinging light is turned into electrical signalsthat are transmitted by neurons to a tiny spot called the centre of vision inthe back part of the brain. This electrical signal is perceived as an image inthis centre in the brain after a series of processes. The act of seeing actually

217The Real Essence of Matter

Stimulations coming

from an object are con-

verted into electrical

signals and cause an

effect in the brain.

When we "see", we in

fact view the effects of

these electrical signals

in our mind.

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takes place in this tiny spot at the posterior part of the brain which is pitch-dark and completely insulated from light.

Now, let us reconsider this seemingly ordinary and unremarkableprocess. When we say that "we see", we are in fact seeing the effects of theimpulses reaching our eye and induced in our brain after they are trans-formed into electrical signals. That is, when we say that "we see", we areactually observing electrical signals in our mind.

All the images we view in our lives are formed in our centre of vision,which makes up only a few cubic centimetres of the volume of the brain.Both the book you are now reading and the boundless landscape you seewhen you gaze at the horizon fit into this tiny space. Another point thathas to be kept in mind is that as we have noted before, the brain is insu-lated from light; its inside is absolutely dark. The brain has no contact withlight itself.

We can explain this interesting situation with an example. Let us sup-pose that there is a burning candle in front of us. We can sit across from thiscandle and watch it at length. However, during this period of time, ourbrain never has any direct contact with the candle's original light. Even aswe see the light of the candle, the inside of our brain is solid dark. Wewatch a colourful and bright world inside our dark brain.

R.L. Gregory makes the following explanation about the miraculousaspect of seeing, an action that we take so very much for granted:

We are so familiar with seeing, that it takes a leap of imagination to realisethat there are problems to be solved. But consider it. We are given tiny dis-torted upside-down images in the eyes, and we see separate solid objects insurrounding space. From the patterns of simulation on the retinas we per-ceive the world of objects, and this is nothing short of a miracle.200

The same situation applies to all our other senses. Sound, touch, tasteand smell are all transmitted to the brain as electrical signals and are per-ceived in the relevant centers in the brain.

The sense of hearing takes place in the same manner. The outer earpicks up available sounds by the auricle and directs them to the middleear; the middle ear transmits the sound vibrations to the inner ear by in-tensifying them; the inner ear sends these vibrations to the brain by trans-lating them into electrical signals. Just as with the eye, the act of hearingfinalises in the centre of hearing in the brain. The brain is insulated from

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sound just like it is from light. Therefore, no matter how noisy it is outside,the inside of the brain is completely silent.

Nevertheless, even the subtlest sounds are perceived in the brain.This is such a precision that the ear of a healthy person hears everythingwithout any atmospheric noise or interference. In your brain, which is in-sulated from sound, you listen to the symphonies of an orchestra, hear all

The Real Essence of Matter

Bundles of light coming from an object fall on the retina upside-down. Here, the imageis converted into electrical signals and transmitted to the centre of vision at the back ofthe brain. Since the brain is insulated from light, it is impossible for light to reach thecentre of vision. This means that we view a vast world of light and depth in a tiny spotthat is insulated from light.

Even the moment when we feel the light and heat of a fire, the inside of our brain ispitch dark and its temperature never changes.

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the noises in a crowded place, and perceive all the sounds within a widefrequency ranging from the rustling of a leaf to the roar of a jet plane.However, if the sound level in your brain were to be measured by a sensi-tive device at that moment, it would be seen that a complete silence is pre-vailing there.

Our perception of odour forms in a similar way. Volatile moleculesemitted by things such vanilla or a rose reach the receptors in the delicatehairs in the epithelium region of the nose and become involved in an in-teraction. This interaction is transmitted to the brain as electrical signalsand perceived as smell. Everything that we smell, be it nice or bad, isnothing but the brain's perceiving of the interactions of volatile moleculesafter they have been transformed into electrical signals. You perceive thescent of a perfume, a flower, a food that you like, the sea, or other odorsyou like or dislike in your brain. The molecules themselves never reachthe brain. Just as with sound and vision, what reaches your brain is sim-ply electrical signals. In other words, all the odours that you have as-

sumed to belong to externalobjects since you were bornare just electrical signals thatyou feel through your senseorgans.

Similarly, there are fourdifferent types of chemicalreceptors in the front part ofa human's tongue. Thesepertain to the tastes of salty,sweet, sour, and bitter. Ourtaste receptors transformthese perceptions into elec-trical signals after a chain ofchemical processes andtransmit them to the brain.These signals are perceivedas taste by the brain. Thetaste you get when you eat achocolate bar or a fruit that

We see everything around us as

coloured inside the darkness of our

brains, just as this garden looks

coloured from the window of a dark-

ened room.

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you like is the interpretation of electrical signals by the brain. You cannever reach the object in the outside; you can never see, smell or taste thechocolate itself. For instance, if taste nerves that travel to your brain arecut, nothing you eat at the moment will reach your brain; you will com-pletely lose your sense of taste.

At this point, we come across with another fact: We can never be surethat what we feel when we taste a food and what another person feelswhen he tastes the same food, or what we perceive when we hear a voiceand what another person perceives when he hears the same voice are thesame. On this fact, Lincoln Barnett says that no one can know that anotherperson perceives the colour red or hears the C note the same way as hehimself does.201

Our sense of touch is no different than the others. When we touch anobject, all information that will help us recognise the external world andobjects are transmitted to the brain by the sense nerves on the skin. Thefeeling of touch is formed in our brain. Contrary to general belief, the placewhere we perceive the sense of touch is not at our finger tips or skin but atthe centre of touch in our brain. As a result of the brain's assessment of

The Real Essence of Matter

All we see in our lives are formed

in a part of our brain called "vi-

sion centre" at the back of our

brain, which makes up only a

few cubic centimetres. Both the

book you are now reading and

the boundless landscape you

see when you gaze at the

horizon fit into this tiny

space. Therefore, we see

objects not in their ac-

tual size existing out-

side, but in the size

perceived by our brain.

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electrical stimulations coming from objects to it, we feel different sensespertaining to those objects such as hardness or softness, or heat or cold. Wederive all details that help us recognise an object from these stimulations.Concerning this important fact, the thoughts of two famous philosophers,B. Russell and L. J. J. Wittgeinstein are as follows;

For instance, whether a lemon truly exists or not and how it came to existcannot be questioned and investigated. A lemon consists merely of a tastesensed by the tongue, an odor sensed by the nose, a colour and shape sensedby the eye; and only these features of it can be subject to examination and as-sessment. Science can never know the physical world.202

It is impossible for us to reach the physical world. All objects aroundus are a collection of perceptions such as seeing, hearing, and touching. Byprocessing the data in the centre of vision and in other sensory centres, ourbrain, throughout our lives, confronts not the "original" of the matter ex-isting outside us but rather the copy formed inside our brain. It is at thispoint that we are misled by assuming that these copies are instances of realmatter outside us.

"The External World" Inside Our BrainAs a result of the physical facts described so far, we may conclude the

following. Everything we see, touch, hear, and perceive as matter", "theworld" or "the universe" is nothing but electrical signals occurring in ourbrain.

Someone eating a fruit in fact confronts not the actual fruit but its per-ception in the brain. The object considered to be a "fruit" by the person ac-tually consists of an electrical impression in the brain concerning theshape, taste, smell, and texture of the fruit. If the sight nerve travelling tothe brain were to be severed suddenly, the image of the fruit would sud-denly disappear. Or a disconnection in the nerve travelling from the sen-sors in the nose to the brain would completely interrupt the sense of smell.Simply put, the fruit is nothing but the interpretation of electrical signalsby the brain.

Another point to be considered is the sense of distance. Distance,which is to say the distance between you and this book, is only a feeling ofemptiness formed in your brain. Objects that seem to be distant in that per-son's view also exist in the brain. For instance, someone who watches the


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stars in the sky assumes that they are millions of light-years away fromhim. Yet what he "sees" are really the stars inside himself, in his centre ofvision. While you read these lines, you are, in truth, not inside the roomyou assume you are in; on the contrary, the room is inside you. Your seeingyour body makes you think that you are inside it. However, you must re-member that your body, too, is an image formed inside your brain.

The same applies to all your other perceptions. For instance, whenyou think that you hear the sound of the television in the next room, youare actually experiencing the sound inside your brain. You can neitherprove that a room exists next to yours, nor that a sound comes from thetelevision in that room. Both the sound you think to be coming from me-ters away and the conversation of a person right near you are perceived ina few centimetre-square centre of hearing in your brain. Apart from thiscentre of perception, no concept such as right, left, front or behind exists.That is, sound does not come to you from the right, from the left or fromthe air; there is no direction from which the sound comes.

The smells that you perceive are like that too; none of them reach youfrom a long distance. You suppose that the end-effects formed in your cen-tre of smell are the smell of the objects in the outside. However, just as the

The Real Essence of Matter 223

As a result of artificial stimulations, a physical

world as true and realistic as the real one can be

formed in our brain without the existence of

physical world. As a result of artificial stimula-

tions, a person may think that he is driving in his

car, while he is actually sitting in his home.

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image of a rose is in your centre of vision, so the smell of this rose is in yourcentre of smell; you can never know whether the original of that rose orsmell really exists outside.

The "external world" presented to us by our perceptions is merely acollection of the electrical signals reaching our brain. Throughout our lives,these signals are processed by our brain and we live without recognisingthat we are mistaken in assuming that these are the original versions ofmatter existing in the "external world". We are misled because we cannever reach the matter itself by means of our senses.

Moreover it is again our brain that interprets and attributes meaningto the signals that we assume to be the "external world". For example, letus consider the sense of hearing. It is in fact our brain that transforms thesound waves in the "external world" into a symphony. That is to say, musicis also a perception created by our brain. In the same manner, when we seecolours, what reaches our eyes are merely electrical signals of differentwavelengths. It is again our brain that trans-forms these signals into colours. There are nocolours in the "external world". Neither is theapple red nor is the sky blue nor the treesgreen. They are as they are just because weperceive them to be so. The "external world"depends entirely on the perceiver.

Even a slightest defect in the retina of theeye causes colour blindness. Some people per-ceive blue as green, some red as blue, andsome all colours as different tones of grey. Atthis point, it does not matter whether the ob-ject outside is coloured or not.

The prominent thinker Berkeley also ad-dresses this fact:

At the beginning, it was believed that colours,odours, etc., "really exist", but subsequentlysuch views were renounced, and it was seenthat they only exist in dependence on oursensations.203

In conclusion, the reason we see objectscoloured is not because they are coloured or

The findings of modern physics show

that the universe is a collection of per-

ceptions. The following question ap-

pears on the cover of the well-known

American science magazine New Sci-

entist which dealt with this fact in its

30 January 1999 issue: "Beyond Real-

ity: Is the Universe Really a Frolic of

Primal Information and Matter Just a


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because they have an independent material existence outside ourselves.The truth of the matter is rather that all the qualities we ascribe to objectsare inside us and not in the "external world".

So what remains of the "external world"?

Is The Existence Of The "External World" Indispensable?So far we have been speaking repeatedly of an "external world" and a

world of perceptions formed in our brain, the latter of which is the one wesee. However since we can never actually reach the "external world", howcan we be sure that such a world really exists?

Actually we cannot. Since each object is only a collection of percep-tions and those perceptions exist only in the mind, it is more accurate tosay that the only world that we deal with is the world of perceptions. Theonly world we know of is the world that exists in our mind: the one that isdesigned, recorded, and made vivid there; the one, in short, that is createdwithin our mind. This is the only world we can be sure of.

We can never prove that the perceptions we observe in our brain havematerial correlates. Those perceptions may well be coming from an "artifi-cial" source.

It is possible to observe this. False stimulations can produce in ourbrain an entirely imaginary "material world". For example, let us think of avery developed recording instrument where all kinds of electrical signalscan be recorded. First, let us transmit all the data related to a setting (in-cluding body image) to this instrument by transforming them into electricalsignals. Second, let us imagine that you can have your brain survive apartfrom your body. Lastly, let us connect the recording instrument to the brainwith electrodes that will function as nerves and send the pre-recorded datato the brain. In this state, you will feel yourself as if you are living in this ar-tificially created setting. For instance, you can easily believe that you aredriving fast on a highway. It never becomes possible to understand that youconsist of nothing but your brain. This is because what is needed to form aworld within your brain is not the existence of a real world but rather theavailability of stimulations. It is perfectly possible that these stimulationscould be coming from an artificial source, such as a recorder.

In that connection, distinguished science philosopher Bertrand Rus-sell wrote;

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As to the sense of touch when we press the table with our fingers, that is anelectric disturbance on the electrons and protons of our fingertips, produced,according to modern physics, by the proximity of the electrons and protonsin the table. If the same disturbance in our finger-tips arose in any otherway, we should have the sensations, in spite of there being no table.204

It is indeed very easy for us to be deceived into deeming perceptionswithout any material correlates as real. We often experience this feeling inour dreams. In our dreams, we experience events, see people, objects andsettings that seem completely real. However, they are all nothing but mereperceptions. There is no basic difference between the dream and the "realworld"; both of them are experienced in the brain.

Who Is The Perceiver?As we have related so far, there is no doubt of the fact that the world

we think we are inhabiting and that we call the "external world" is createdinside our brain. However, here arises the question of primary importance.If all the physical events that we know of are intrinsically perceptions,what about our brain? Since our brain is a part of the physical world justlike our arm, leg, or any other object, it also should be a perception just likeall other objects.

An example about dreams will illuminate the subject further. Let usthink that we see the dream within our brain in accordance with what hasbeen said so far. In the dream, we will have an imaginary body, an imagi-nary arm, an imaginary eye, and an imaginary brain. If during our dreamwe were asked "where do you see?", we would answer "I see in my brain".Yet, actually there is not any brain to talk about, but an imaginary headand an imaginary brain. The seer of the images is not the imaginary brainin the dream, but a "being" that is far "superior" to it.

We know that there is no physical distinction between the setting of adream and the setting we call real life. So when we are asked in the settingwe call real life the above question of "where do you see", it would be justas meaningless to answer "in my brain" as in the example above. In bothconditions, the entity that sees and perceives is not the brain, which is afterall only a hunk of meat.

When the brain is analysed, it is seen that there is nothing in it butlipid and protein molecules, which also exist in other living organisms.This means that within the piece of meat we call our "brain", there is noth-

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ing to observe the images, to constitute consciousness, or to create thebeing we call "myself".

R.L. Gregory refers to a mistake people make in relation to the per-ception of images in the brain:

There is a temptation, which must be avoided, to say that the eyes producepictures in the brain. A picture in the brain suggests the need of some kind ofinternal eye to see it - but this would need a further eye to see its picture…and so on in an endless regress of eyes and pictures. This is absurd.205

This is the very point which puts the materialists, who do not holdanything but the matter as true, in a quandary. To whom belongs "the eyeinside" that sees, that perceives what it sees and reacts?

Karl Pribram also focused on this important question in the world ofscience and philosophy about who the perceiver is:

Philosophers since the Greeks have speculated about the "ghost" in the ma-chine, the "little man inside the little man" and so on. Where is the I -the en-tity that uses the brain? Who does the actual knowing? Or, as Saint Francis ofAssisi once put it, "What we are looking for is what is looking."206

Now, think of this: The book in your hand, the room you are in, inbrief, all the images in front of you are seen inside your brain. Is it theatoms that see these images? Blind, deaf, unconscious atoms? Why didsome atoms acquire this quality whereas some did not? Do our acts ofthinking, comprehending, remembering, being delighted, being unhappy,and everything else consist of the electrochemical reactions between theseatoms?

When we ponder these questions, we see that there is no sense inlooking for will in atoms. It is clear that the being who sees, hears, and feelsis a supra-material being. This being is "alive" and it is neither matter noran image of matter. This being associates with the perceptions in front of itby using the image of our body.

This being is the "soul".The aggregate of perceptions we call the "material world" is a dream

observed by this soul. Just as the body we possess and the material worldwe see in our dreams have no reality, the universe we occupy and the bodywe possess also have no material reality.

The real being is the soul. Matter consists merely of perceptions

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viewed by the soul. The intelligent being that writes and reads these linesis not a heap of atoms and molecules-and the chemical reactions betweenthem-but a "soul".

The Real Absolute BeingAll these facts bring us face to face with a very significant question. If

the thing we acknowledge to be the material world is merely comprised ofperceptions seen by our soul, then what is the source of these perceptions?

In answering this question, we have to take the following fact intoconsideration: matter does not have a self-governing existence by itself.Since matter is a perception, it is something "artificial". That is, this percep-tion must have been caused by another power, which means that it must infact have been created. Moreover, this creation should be continuous. Ifthere was not a continuous and consistent creation, then what we call mat-ter would disappear and be lost. This may be likened to a television onwhich a picture is displayed as long as the signal continues to be broad-cast. So, who makes our soul watch the stars, the earth, the plants, the peo-ple, our body and all else that we see?

It is very evident that there exists a supreme Creator, Who has createdthe entire material universe, that is, the sum of perceptions, and Who con-tinues His creation ceaselessly. Since this Creator displays such a magnifi-cent creation, he surely has eternal power and might. This Creatordescribes us Himself, the universe and the reason of our existence throughthe book He has sent down.

The brain is a heap of cells made up of protein and fat molecules. It is formed of nerve cells called

neurons. There is no power in this piece of meat to observe the images, to constitute conscious-

ness, or to create the being we call "myself".

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This Creator is God and the name of His Book is the Qur'an. The facts that the heavens and the earth, that is, the universe is not

stable, that their presence is only made possible by God's creation and thatthey will disappear when He ends this creation, are all explained in a verseas follows:

It is God Who sustains the heavens and the earth, lest they cease (to func-tion): and if they should fail, there is none -not one- can sustain them there-after: Verily He is Most Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving. (Surah Fatir, 41)

As we mentioned at the beginning, some people have no genuine un-derstanding of God and so they imagine Him as a being present some-where in the heavens and not really intervening in worldly affairs. Thebasis of this logic actually lies in the thought that the universe is an assem-bly of matter and God is "outside" this material world, in a far away place.In some false religions, belief in God is limited to this understanding.

However, as we have considered so far, matter is composed only ofsensations. And the only real absolute being is God. That means that it isonly God that exists: everything except Him are images. Consequently, itis impossible to conceive God as a separate being outside this whole massof matter. God is surely "everywhere" and encompasses all. This reality isexplained in the Qur'an as follows;

God! There is no god but He, the Living, the Self-subsisting, Eternal. Noslumber can seize Him nor sleep. His are all things in the heavens and onearth. Who is there can intercede in His presence except as He permits? Heknows what (appears to His creatures as) before or after or behind them. Norshall they compass aught of His knowledge except as He wills. His Throneextends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guardingand preserving them for He is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory). (Suratal-Baqara, 255)

The fact that God is not bound with space and that He encompasseseverything roundabout is stated in another verse as follows:

To God belong the east and the west: Whithersoever you turn, there is thepresence of God. For God is all-Pervading, all-Knowing. (Surat al-Baqara, 115)

Since material beings are each a perception, they cannot see God; butGod sees the matter He created in all its forms. In the Qur'an, this fact isstated thus: "No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision"(Surat al-Anaam, 103)

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That is, we cannot perceive God with our eyes, but God has thor-oughly encompassed our inside, outside, looks and thoughts. We cannotutter any word but with His knowledge, nor can we even take a breath.

While we watch these sensory perceptions in the course of our lives,the closest being to us is not any one of these sensations, but God Himself.The secret of the following verse in the Qur'an is concealed in this reality:"It was We Who created man, and We know what dark suggestions hissoul makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his)jugular vein." (Surah Qaf: 16) When a person thinksthat his body is made up of "matter", he cannot com-prehend this important fact. If he takes his brain to be"himself", then the place he accepts to be the outsidewill be 20-30 cms away from him. However, when heconceives that everything he knows as matter, is imagi-nation, notions such as outside, inside, or near losemeaning. God has encompassed him and He is "infi-nitely close" to him.

God informs men that He is "infinitely close" tothem with the verse "When My servants ask you con-cerning Me, I am indeed close (to them)" (Surat al-Baqara, 186). Anotherverse relates the same fact: "We told you that your Lord encompassesmankind round about." (Surat al-Isra, 60).

Man is misled by thinking that the being that is closest to him is him-self. God, in truth, is closer to us even more than ourselves. He has calledour attention to this point in the verse "Why is it not then that when it(soul) comes up to the throat, and you at that time look on, We are nearerto him than you, but you see not." (Surat al-Waqia, 83-85). As informed inthe verse, people live unaware of this phenomenal fact because they do notsee it with their eyes.

On the other hand, it is impossible for man, who is nothing but animage, to have a power and will independent of God. The verse "But Godhas created you and your handwork!" (Surat as-Saaffat, 96) shows thateverything we experience takes place under God's control. In the Qur'an,this reality is stated in the verse "When you threw, it was not your act, butGod's." (Surat al-Anfal, 17) whereby it is emphasised that no act is inde-pendent of God. Since a human being is an image, it cannot be itself which


Why is it not then that

when it (soul) comes

up to the throat, and

you at that time look

on, We are nearer to

him than you, but you

see not. (Surat al-

Waqia, 83-85)

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performs the act of throwing. However, God gives this image the feeling of

the self. In reality, it is God Who performs all acts. So, if one takes the acts

he does as his own, he evidently means to deceive himself.

This is the reality. A person may not want to concede this and may

think of himself as a being independent of God; but this does not change a

thing. Of course his unwise denial is again within God's will and wish.

Everything That You Possess Is Intrinsically Illusory As it may be seen clearly, it is a scientific and logical fact that the "ex-

ternal world" has no materialistic reality and that it is a collection of im-

ages God perpetually presents to our soul. Nevertheless, people usually

do not include, or rather do not want to include, everything in the concept

of the "external world".

The Real Essence of Matter

If one ponders deeply on all that is said here, he will soon realise this amazing, extraor-dinary situation by himself: that all the events in the world are but mere imagination…

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If you think on this issue sincerely and boldly, you come to realise thatyour house, your furniture in it, your car-perhaps recently bought, your of-fice, your jewels, your bank account, your wardrobe, your spouse, yourchildren, your colleagues, and all else that you possess are in fact includedin this imaginary external world projected to you. Everything you see,hear, or smell-in short-perceive with your five senses around you is a partof this "imaginary world" the voice of your favourite singer, the hardnessof the chair you sit on, a perfume whose smell you like, the sun that keepsyou warm, a flower with beautiful colours, a bird flying in front of yourwindow, a speedboat moving swiftly on the water, your fertile garden, thecomputer you use at your job, or your hi-fi that has the most advancedtechnology in the world…

This is the reality, because the world is only a collection of images cre-ated to test man. People are tested all through their limited lives with per-ceptions bearing no reality. These perceptions are intentionally presentedas appealing and attractive. This fact is mentioned in the Qur'an:

Fair in the eyes of men is the love of things they covet: Women and sons;Heaped-up hoards of gold and silver; horses branded (for blood and excel-lence); and (wealth of) cattle and well-tilled land. Such are the possessions ofthis world's life; but in nearness to God is the best of the goals (to return to).(Surat Aal-e Imran, 14)

Most people cast their religion away for the lure of property, wealth,heaped-up hoards of gold and silver, dollars, jewels, bank accounts, creditcards, wardrobe-full clothes, late-model cars, in short, all forms of prosper-ity they either possess or strive to possess and they concentrate only onthis world while forgetting the hereafter. They are deceived by the "fairand alluring" face of the life of this world, and fail to keep up prayer, givecharity to the poor, and perform worship that will make them prosper inthe hereafter by saying "I have things to do", "I have ideals", "I have re-sponsibilities", "I do not have enough time", "I have things to complete", "Iwill do them in the future". They consume their lives by trying to prosperonly in this world. In the verse, "They know but the outer (things) in thelife of this world: but of the End of things they are heedless." (Surat ar-Room, 7), this misconception is described.

The fact we describe in this chapter, namely the fact that everything isan image, is very important for its implication that it renders all the lusts


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and boundaries meaningless. The verification of this fact makes it clearthat everything people possess and toil to possess, their wealth made withgreed, their children with whom they boast, their spouses who they con-sider to be closest to them, their friends, their dearest bodies, their rankwhich they hold to be a superiority, the schools they have attended, theholidays they have been are nothing but mere illusion. Therefore, all the ef-forts put, the time spent, and the greed felt prove to be in unavailing.

This is why some people unwittingly make fools of themselves whenthey boast of their wealth and properties or of their "yachts, helicopters,factories, holdings, manors and lands" as if they ever really existed. Thosewell-to-do people who ostentatiously saunter up and down in their yachts,show off with their cars, keep talking about their wealth, suppose thattheir post rank them higher than everyone else and keep thinking that theyare successful because of all this, should actually think what kind of a statethey would find themselves in once they realise that their success is noth-ing but an illusion.

In fact, these scenes are many times seen in dreams as well. In theirdreams, they also have houses, fast cars, extremely precious jewels, rolls ofdollars, and loads of gold and silver. In their dreams, they are also posi-tioned in a high rank, own factories with thousands of workers, possesspower to rule over many people, put on clothes that make every one ad-mire them… Just as boasting about one's possessions in one's dreamcauses a person to be ridiculed, he is sure to be equally ridiculed for boast-ing of images he sees in this world. After all, both what he sees in hisdreams and what he relates to in this world are mere images in his mind.

Similarly the way people react to the events they experience in theworld is to make them feel ashamed when they realise the reality. Thosewho fiercely fight with each other, those who rave furiously, who swindle,who take bribes, who commit forgery, who lie, who covetously withholdtheir money, who do wrong to people, who beat and curse others, ragingaggressors, those who are full of passion for office and rank, who practiceenvy, who try to show off, who try to sanctify themselves and all otherswill be disgraced when they realise that they have committed all of thesedeeds in a dream.

Since it is God Who creates all these images, the Ultimate Owner ofeverything is God alone. This fact is stressed in the Qur'an:

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But to God belong all things in the heavens and on earth: And He it is thatEncompasses all things. (Surat an-Nisa, 126)

It is a great foolishness to cast religion away at the cost of imaginarypassions and thus lose the eternal life.

At this stage, one point should be well grasped: it is not said here thatthe fact you face predicates that "all the possessions, wealth, children,spouses, friends, rank you have with which you are being stingy will van-ish sooner or later, and therefore they do not have any meaning". It israther said that "all the possessions you seem to have in fact do not exist atall, but they are merely a dream and composed of images God shows to

test you". As you see, there is a big differ-ence between the two statements.

Although one does not want to ac-knowledge this fact right away andwould rather deceive himself by assum-ing everything he has truly exists, he is fi-nally to die and in the hereaftereverything is to become clear when he isrecreated. On that day "sharp is one'ssight" (Surah Qaf, 22) and he is apt to seeeverything much more clearly. However,if he has spent his life chasing after imagi-nary aims, he is going to wish he had

never lived his life and say "Ah! Would that (Death) had made an end ofme! Of no profit to me has been my wealth! My power has perished fromme!" (Surat al-Haqqaa, 27-29)

What a wise man should do, on the other hand, is to try to understandthe greatest reality of the universe here on this world, while he still hastime. Otherwise, he is to spend all his life running after dreams and face agrievous penalty in the end. In the Qur'an, the final state of those peoplewho run after illusions (or mirages) on this world and forget their Creator,is stated as follows;

But the Unbelievers, their deeds are like a mirage in sandy deserts, whichthe man parched with thirst mistakes for water; until when he comes up to it,he finds it to be nothing: But he finds God (ever) with him, and God will payhim his account: and God is swift in taking account. (Surat an-Noor, 39)


But to God belong

all things in the

heavens and on

earth: And He it is

that Encompasses

all things. (Surat

an-Nisa, 126)

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Logical Deficiencies Of The MaterialistsSince the beginning of this chapter, it is clearly stated that matter is

not an absolute being as the materialists claim but rather a collection ofsenses God creates. Materialists resist inan extremely dogmatic manner this evi-dent reality which destroys their philoso-phy and bring forward baselessanti-theses.

For example, one of the biggest ad-vocates of the materialist philosophy inthe 20th century, an ardent Marxist,George Politzer, gave the "bus example"as the "greatest evidence" for the exis-tence of matter. According to Politzer,philosophers who think that matter is aperception also run away when they seea bus and this is the proof of the physicalexistence of matter.207

When another famous materialist,Johnson, was told that matter is a collection of perceptions, he tried to"prove" the physical existence of stones by giving them a kick.208

A similar example is given by Friedrich Engels, the mentor of Politzerand the founder of dialectic materialism along with Marx, who wrote "ifthe cakes we eat were mere perceptions, they would not stop ourhunger".209

There are similar examples and impetuous sentences such as "you un-derstand the existence of matter when you are slapped in the face" in thebooks of famous materialists such as Marx, Engels, Lenin, and others.

The disorder in comprehension that gives way to these examples ofthe materialists is their interpreting the explanation of "matter is a percep-tion" as "matter is a trick of light". They think that the concept of percep-tion is only limited to sight and that perceptions like touching have aphysical correlate. A bus knocking a man down makes them say "Look, itcrashed, therefore it is not a perception". What they do not understand isthat all perceptions experienced during a bus crash such as hardness, colli-sion, and pain are formed in the brain.

235The Real Essence of Matter

But the Unbelievers,their deeds are like amirage in sandydeserts, which theman parched withthirst mistakes forwater; until when hecomes up to it, hefinds it to be nothing:But he finds God(ever) with him, andGod will pay him hisaccount: and God isswift in taking ac-count.

(Surat an-Noor, 39)

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The Example Of DreamsThe best example to explain this reality are dreams. A person can ex-

perience very realistic events in his dream. He can roll down the stairs andbreak his leg, have a serious car accident, get stuck under a bus, or eat acake and be satiated. Similar events to those experienced in our daily livesare also experienced in dreams with the same persuasiveness and rousingthe same feelings in us.

A person who dreams that he is knocked down by a bus can open hiseyes in a hospital again in his dream and understand that he is disabled,but this all would be a dream. He can also dream that he dies in a car crash,angels of death take his soul, and his life in the hereafter begins. (Thisevent is experienced in the same manner in this life, which is a perceptionjust like the dream.)

This person very sharply perceives the images, sounds, feeling ofhardness, light, colours, and all other feelings pertaining to the event heexperiences in his dream. The perceptions he perceives in his dream are asnatural as the ones in "real" life. The cake he eats in his dream satiates himalthough it is a mere perception, because being satiated is also a percep-tion. However, in reality, this person is lying in his bed at that moment.There are no stairs, no traffic, no buses to consider. The dreaming personexperiences and sees perceptions and feelings that do not exist in the ex-ternal world. The fact that in our dreams, we experience, see, and feelevents with no physical correlates in the "external world" very clearly re-veals that the "external world" absolutely consists of mere perceptions.

Those who believe in the materialist philosophy, and particularly theMarxists, are enraged when they are told about this reality, the essence ofmatter. They quote examples from the superficial reasoning of Marx, En-gels, or Lenin and make emotional declarations.

However, these persons must think that they can also make these de-clarations in their dreams. In their dream, they can also read "Das Kapital",participate in meetings, fight with the police, get hit on the head, andmoreover, feel the pain of their wounds. When they are asked in theirdreams, they will think that what they experience in their dreams also con-sists of "absolute matter"-just as they assume the things they see when theyare awake are "absolute matter". However, be it in their dream or in theirdaily lives, all that they see, experience, or feel consists only of perceptions.


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For you, reality is all that can be touched with the hand and seen with

the eye. In your dreams you can also "touch with your hand and see

with your eye", but in reality, you have neither hand nor eye, nor is

there anything that can be touched or seen. There is no material reality that

makes these things happen except your brain. You are simply being de-


What is it that separates real life and the dreams from one another? Ulti-

mately, both forms of life are brought into being within the brain. If we are

able to live easily in an unreal world during our dreams, the same thing can

equally be true for the world we live in. When we wake up from a dream,

there is no logical reason for not thinking that we have entered a longer

dream that we call "real life". The reason we consider our dream to be fancy

and the world as real is nothing but a product of our habits and prejudices.

This suggests that we may well be awoken from the life on earth which we

think we are living right now, just as we are awoken from a dream.


The Example Of Connecting The Nerves In ParallelLet us consider the car crash example of Politzer: In this accident, if

the crushed person's nerves travelling from his five senses to his brain,were connected to another person's, for instance Politzer's brain, with aparallel connection, at the moment the bus hit that person, it would also hitPolitzer, who is sitting at his home at that moment. Better to say, all thefeelings experienced by that person having the accident would be experi-

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enced by Politzer, just like the same song is listened from two differentloudspeakers connected to the same tape recorder. Politzer will feel, see,and experience the braking sound of the bus, the touch of the bus on hisbody, the images of a broken arm and shedding blood, fracture aches, theimages of his entering the operation room, the hardness of the plaster cast,and the feebleness of his arm.

Every other person connected to the man's nerves in parallel wouldexperience the accident from beginning to end just like Politzer. If the manin the accident fell into a coma, they would all fall into a coma. Moreover,if all the perceptions pertaining to the car accident were recorded in a de-vice and if all these perceptions were transmitted to a person, the buswould knock this person down many times.

So, which one of the buses hitting those people is real? The materialistphilosophy has no consistent answer to this question. The right answer isthat they all experience the car accident in all its details in their own minds.

The same principle applies to the cake and stone examples. If thenerves of the sense organs of Engels, who felt the satiety and fullness of thecake in his stomach after eating a cake, were connected to a second per-son's brain in parallel, that person would also feel full when Engels ate thecake and was satiated. If the nerves of Johnson, who felt pain in his footwhen he delivered a sound kick to a stone, were connected to a second per-son in parallel, that person would feel the same pain.

So, which cake or which stone is the real one? The materialist philosophyagain falls short of giving a consistent answer to this question. The correct andconsistent answer is this: both Engels and the second person have eaten thecake in their minds and are satiated; both Johnson and the second personhave fully experienced the moment of striking the stone in their minds.

Let us make a change in the example we gave about Politzer: let usconnect the nerves of the man hit by the bus to Politzer's brain, and thenerves of Politzer sitting in his house to that man's brain, who is hit by thebus. In this case, Politzer will think that a bus has hit him although whenhe is sitting in his house; and the man actually hit by the bus will never feelthe impact of the accident and think that he is sitting in Politzer's house.The very same logic may be applied to the cake and the stone examples.

As is to be seen, it is not possible for man to transcend his senses andbreak free of them. In this respect, a man's soul can be subjected to all kinds


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of representations although it has no physical body and no material exis-tence and lacks material weight. It is not possible for a person to realise thisbecause he assumes these three-dimensional images to be real and is ab-solutely certain of their existence because everybody depends on percep-tions that are caused to be felt by his sensory organs.

The famous British philosopher David Hume expresses his thoughtson this fact:

Frankly speaking, when I include myself in what I call "myself", I alwayscome across with a specific perception pertaining to hot or cold, light orshadow, love or hatred, sour or sweet or some other notion. Without the exis-tence of a perception, I can never capture myself in a particular time and Ican observe nothing but perception.210

The Formation Of Perceptions In The Brain Is Not Philosophy But Scientific FactMaterialists claim that what we have been saying here is a philosoph-

ical view. However, to hold that the "external world", as we call it, is a col-lection of perceptions is not a matter of philosophy but a plain scientificfact. How the image and feelings form in the brain is taught in all medicalschools in detail. These facts, proven by the 20th-century science, and par-ticularly by physics, clearly show that matter does not have an absolute re-ality and that everyone in a sense is watching the "monitor in his brain".

Everyone who believes in science, be he an atheist, Buddhist, or any-one who holds another view has to accept this fact. A materialist mightdeny the existence of a Creator yet he cannot deny this scientific reality.

The inability of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Georges Politzer andothers in comprehending such a simple and evident fact is still startling al-though the level of scientific understanding and possibilities of their timeswere insufficient. In our time, science and technology are highly advancedand recent discoveries make it easier to comprehend this fact. Materialists,on the other hand, are flooded with the fear of both comprehending thisfact, though partially, and realising how definitely it demolishes their phi-losophy.

The Great Fear Of The Materialists For a while, no substantial backlash came from the Turkish materialist

circles against the subject brought up in this book, that is, the fact that mat-

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ter is a mere perception. This had given us the impression that our pointwas not made so clear and that it needed further explanation. Yet beforelong, it was revealed that materialists felt quite uneasy about the popular-ity of this subject and moreover, felt a great fear all about this.

For a while, materialists have been loudly pronouncing their fear andpanic in their publications, conferences and panels. Their agitated andhopeless discourse implies that they are suffering from a severe intellec-tual crisis. The scientific collapse of the theory of evolution, the so-calledbasis of their philosophy, had already come as a great shock to them. Now,they come to realise that they start to lose the matter itself, which is agreater mainstay for them than Darwinism, and they experience an evengreater shock. They declare that this issue is the "biggest threat" for themand that it totally "demolishes their cultural fabric".

One of those who expressed this anxiety and panic felt by the materi-alist circles in the most outspoken way was Renan Pekunlu, an academi-cian as well as a writer of Bilim ve Utopya (Science and Utopia) periodicalwhich has assumed the task of defending materialism. Both in his articlesin Bilim ve Utopya and in the panels he attended, Pekunlu presented thebook Evolution Deceit as the number one "threat" to materialism. What dis-turbed Pekunlu even more than the chapters that invalidated Darwinismwas the part you are currently reading. To his readers and (only a handfulof) audience, Pekunlu delivered the message "do not let yourselves be car-ried away by the indoctrination of idealism and keep your faith in materi-alism" and showed Vladimir I. Lenin, the leader of the bloody communistrevolution in Russia, as reference. Advising everyone to read Lenin's cen-tury-old book titled Materialism and Empirio-Criticism, all Pekunlu did wasto repeat the counsels of Lenin stating "do not think over this issue, or youwill lose track of materialism and be carried away by religion". In an articlehe wrote in the aforementioned periodical, he quoted the following linesfrom Lenin:

Once you deny objective reality, given us in sensation, you have already lostevery weapon against fideism, for you have slipped into agnosticism or sub-jectivism-and that is all that fideism requires. A single claw ensnared, and thebird is lost. And our Machists have all become ensnared in idealism, that is, ina diluted, subtle fideism; they became ensnared from the moment they took"sensation" not as an image of the external world but as a special "element". Itis nobody's sensation, nobody's mind, nobody's spirit, nobody's will.211


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These words explicitly demonstrate that the fact which Lenin alarm-ingly realised and wanted to take out both from his mind and the minds ofhis "comrades" also disturbs contemporary materialists in a similar way.However, Pekunlu and other materialists suffer a yet greater distress; be-cause they are aware that this fact is now being put forward in a far moreexplicit, certain and convincing way than 100 years ago. For the first timein world history, this subject is being explained in such an irresistible way,.

Nevertheless, the general picture is that a great number of materialistscientists still take a very superficial stand against the fact that "matter isnothing but an illusion". The subject explained in this chapter is one of themost important and most exciting subjects that one can ever come acrossin one's life. It is rather unlikely that they would have faced such a crucialsubject before. Still, the reactions of these scientists or the manner they em-ploy in their speeches and articles hint how shallow and superficial theircomprehension is.

It is so much so that the reactions of some materialists to the subjectdiscussed here show that their blind adherence to materialism has causedsome kind of a harm in their logic and for this reason, they are far removedfrom comprehending the subject. For instance Alaattin Senel, also an acad-emician and a writer for Bilim ve Utopya, gave similar messages as RennanPekunlu saying "Forget the collapse of Darwinism, the real threateningsubject is this one", and made demands such as"so you prove what you tell" sensing that his ownphilosophy has no basis. What is more interestingis that this writer himself has written lines reveal-ing that he can by no means grasp this fact whichhe considers to be a menace.

For instance, in an article where he exclu-sively discussed this subject, Senel accepts thatthe external world is perceived in the brain as animage. However, he then goes on to claim that im-ages are divided into two as those having physi-cal correlates and those that do not, and thatimages pertaining to the external world havephysical correlates. In order to support his asser-tion, he gives "the example of telephone". In sum-

241The Real Essence of Matter

Turkish materialist writerRennan Pekunlu says that"the theory of evolution isnot so important, the realthreat is this subject", be-cause he is aware that thissubject nullifies matter, theonly concept he has faith in.

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mary, he wrote: "I do not know whether the images in my brain have cor-relates in the external world or not, but the same thing applies when Ispeak on the phone. When I speak on the telephone, I cannot see the per-son I am speaking to but I can have this conversation confirmed when Ilater see him face to face." 212

By saying so, this writer actually means the following: "If we doubtour perceptions, we can look at the matter itself and check its reality."However, this is an evident misconception because it is impossible for usto reach the matter itself. We can never get out of our mind and knowwhat is "outside". Whether the voice on the phone has a correlate or notcan be confirmed by the person on the phone. However, this confirmationis also imagery experienced by the mind.

As a matter of fact, these people also experience the same events intheir dreams. For instance, Senel may also see in his dream that he speakson the phone and then have this conversation confirmed by the person hespoke to. Or, Pekunlu may in his dream feel as facing "a serious threat" andadvise people to read century-old books of Lenin. However, no matterwhat they do, these materialists can never deny the fact that the eventsthey have experienced and the people they have talked to in their dreamswere nothing but perceptions.

By whom, then, will one confirm whether the images in the brainhave correlates or not? By the images in his brain again? Without doubt, itis impossible for materialists to find a source of information that can yielddata concerning the outside of the brain and confirm it.

Conceding that all perceptions are formed in the brain but assumingthat one can step "out" of this and have the perceptions confirmed by thereal external world reveals that the perceptive capacity of the person islimited and that he has a distorted reasoning.

However, the fact told here can easily be captured by a person with anormal level of understanding and reasoning. Each unbiased personwould know, in relation to all that we have said, that it is not possible forhim to test the existence of the external world with his senses. Yet, it ap-pears that blind adherence to materialism distorts the reasoning capabilityof people. For this reason, contemporary materialists display severe logicalflaws just like their mentors who tried to "prove" the existence of matter bykicking stones or eating cakes.


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It also has to be stated that this is not an astonishing situation; be-cause, inability to understand is a common trait of all unbelievers. In theQur'an, God particularly states that they are "a people without under-standing" (Surat al-Baqara 171)

Materialists Have Fallen Into The Biggest Trap In HistoryThe atmosphere of panic sweeping through the materialist circles in

Turkey of which we have mentioned only a few examples here shows thatmaterialists face an utter defeat such as they have never met in history. Thefact that matter is simply a perception has been proven by modern scienceand it is put forward in a very clear, straightforward and forceful way. Itonly remains for the materialists to see the collapse of the entire materialworld they blindly believe and rely on.

Throughout the history of humanity, materialist thought always ex-isted. Being very assured of themselves and the philosophy they believein, materialists revolted against God who has created them. The scenariothey formulated maintained that matter had no beginning or end, and thatnone of it could possibly have a Creator. While they denied God just be-cause of their arrogance, they took refuge in matter which they held tohave a real existence. They were so confident of this philosophy that theythought it would never be possible to put forth an argument disproving it.

That is why the facts told in this book regarding the real nature ofmatter surprised these people so much. What has been told here destroyedthe very basis of their philosophy and left no ground for further discus-sion. Matter, upon which they based all their thoughts, lives, arroganceand denial, vanished all of a sudden. How can materialism exist whenmatter does not?

One of the attributes of God is His plotting against the unbelievers.This is stated in the verse "They plot and plan, and God too plans; but thebest of planners is God." (Surat al- Anfal, 30)

God entrapped materialists by making them assume that matter ex-ists and so doing, humiliated them in an unseen way. Materialists deemedtheir possessions, status, rank, the society they belong, the whole worldand everything else to be existing and moreover, grew arrogant againstGod by relying on these. They revolted against God by being boastful andadded to their unbelief. While so doing, they totally relied on matter. Yet,

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they are so lacking in understanding that they fail to think that God com-passes them round about. God announces the state to which the unbeliev-ers are led as a result of their thick-headedness:

Or do they intend a plot (against you)? But those who defy God are them-selves involved in a Plot! (Surat At- Tur, 42)

This is most probably the biggest defeat in history. While growing ar-rogant of their own accord, materialists have been tricked and suffered aserious defeat in the war they waged against God by bringing up some-thing monstrous against Him. The verse "Thus have We placed leaders inevery town, its wicked men, to plot (and burrow) therein: but they onlyplot against their own souls, and they perceive it not" announces howunconscious these people who revolt against their Creator are, and howthey will end up (Surat al- Anaam, 123). In another verse the same fact isrelated as:

Fain would they deceive God and those who believe, but they only deceivethemselves, and realise (it) not! (Surat al- Baqara, 9)

While the unbelievers try to plot, they do not realise a very importantfact as stressed by the words "they only deceive themselves, and realise (it)not!" in the verse. This is the fact that everything they experience is an im-agery designed to be perceived by them, and all plots they devise are sim-ply images formed in their brain just like every other act they perform.Their folly has made them forget that they are all alone with God and,hence, they are entrapped in their own devious plans.

No less than those unbelievers who lived in the past, those livingtoday too face a reality that will shatter their devious plans from its basis.With the verse "...feeble indeed is the cunning of Satan" (Surat An-Nisa,76), God has stated that these plots were doomed to end with failure theday they were hatched, and gave the good tidings to believers with theverse "...not the least harm will their cunning do to you". (Surat Aal-E-Imran, 120)

In another verse God states: "But the Unbelievers,- their deeds arelike a mirage in sandy deserts, which the man parched with thirst mis-takes for water; until when he comes up to it, he finds it to be nothing"(Surat an- Noor 39). Materialism, too, becomes a "mirage" for the rebelliousjust like it is stated in this verse; when they have recourse to it, they find itto be nothing but an illusion. God has deceived them with such a mirage,


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and beguiled them into perceiving this whole collection of images as real.All those "eminent" people, professors, astronomers, biologists, physicists,and all others regardless of their rank and post are simply deceived likechildren, and are humiliated because they took matter as their god. As-suming a collection of images to be absolute, they based their philosophyand ideology on it, got involved in serious discussions, and adopted a so-called "intellectual" discourse. They deemed themselves to be wise enoughto offer an argument about the truth of the universe and, more impor-tantly, dispute about God with their limited intelligence. God explainstheir situation in the following verse:

And (the unbelievers) plotted and planned, and God too planned, and thebest of planners is God. (Surat Aal-E-Imran 54)

It may be possible to escape from some plots; however, this plan ofGod against the unbelievers is so firm that there is no way of escape fromit. No matter what they do or to whom they appeal, they can never find ahelper other than God. As God informs in the Qur'an, "they shall not findfor them other than God a patron or a help." (Surat an-Nisa, 173)

Materialists never expected to fall into such a trap. Having all themeans of the 20th centry at their disposal, they thought that they couldgrow obstinate in their denial and drag people to disbelief. This ever-last-ing mentality of unbelievers and their end are described as follows in theQur'an:

They plotted and planned, but We too planned, even while they perceivedit not. Then see what was the end of their plot!- this, that We destroyed themand their people, all (of them). (Surat an- Naml 50-51)

This, in another sense, is what the fact stated in the verses comes tomean: materialists are made to realise that everything they own is but anillusion, and therefore everything they possess has been destroyed. Asthey witness their possessions, factories, gold, dollars, children, spouses,friends, rank and status, and even their own bodies, all of which theydeem to exist, slipping away from their hands, they are "destroyed" in thewords of the 51st verse of Surat an-Naml. At this point, they are no morematter but souls.

No doubt, realising this truth is the worst possible thing for the mate-rialists. The fact that everything they possess is but an illusion, is tanta-mount, in their own words, to "death before dying" in this world.

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This fact leaves them all alone with God. With the verse, "Leave Mealone, (to deal) with the (creature) whom I created (bare and) alone!",God has called us to attention that each human being is, in truth, all alonein His presence. (Surat Al-Muddaththir, 11) This remarkable fact is re-peated in many other verses:

"And behold! you come to us bare and alone as We created you for the firsttime: you have left behind you all (the favors) which We bestowed on you..."(Surat al-Anaam, 94)

And each one of them will come unto Him on the Day of Resurrection, alone.(Surat Maryam, 95)

This, in another sense, is what the fact stated in the verses comes tomean: Those who take matter as their god have come from God and re-turned to Him. They have submitted their wills to God whether they wantit or not. Now they wait for the Day of Judgment on which every one ofthem will be called to account. Though however unwilling they may be tounderstand it...

ConclusionThe subject we have explained so far is one of the greatest truths that

will ever be told to you in your lifetime. Proving that the whole materialworld is in reality a "image", this subject is the key to comprehending theexistence of God and His creations and of understanding that He is theonly absolute being.

The person who understands this subject realises that the world is notthe sort of place it is surmised to be by most people. The world is not an ab-solute place with a true existence as supposed by those who wander aim-less about the streets, who get into fights in pubs, who show off inluxurious cafes, who brag about their property, or who dedicate their livesto hollow aims. The world is only a collection of perceptions, an illusion.All of the people we have cited above are only images who watch theseperceptions in their minds: yet they are not aware of this.

This concept is very important for it undermines the materialist phi-losophy that denies the existence of God and causes it to collapse. This isthe reason why materialists like Marx, Engels, and Lenin felt panic, be-came enraged, and warned their followers "not to think over" this conceptwhen they were told about it. As a matter of fact, such people are in such a


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state of mental deficiency that they cannot even comprehend the fact thatperceptions are formed inside the brain. They assume that the world theywatch in their brain is the "external world" and they cannot comprehendthe obvious evidence to the contrary.

This unawareness is the outcome of the lack of wisdom God gives todisbelievers. As it is said in the Qur'an, the unbelievers "have heartswherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not, and earswherewith they hear not. They are like cattle-nay more misguided: forthey are heedless (of warning)." (Surat al-Araf, 179)

You can explore beyond this point by using the power of your per-sonal reflection. For this, you have to concentrate, devote your attention,and ponder on the way you see the objects around you and the way youfeel their touch. If you think heedfully, you can feel that the wise being thatsees, hears, touches, thinks, and reads this book at this moment is only asoul and watches the perceptions called "matter" on a screen. The personwho comprehends this is considered to have moved away from the do-main of the material world that deceives a major part of humanity and tohave entered the domain of true existence.

This reality has been understood by a number of theists or philoso-phers throughout history. Islamic intellectuals such as Imam Rabbani,Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi and Mevlana Cami realised this fact from the signsof the Qur'an and by using their reason. Some Western philosophers likeGeorge Berkeley have grasped the same reality through reason. Imam Rab-bani wrote in his Mektubat (Letters) that the whole material universe is an"illusion and supposition (perception)" and that the only absolute being isGod:

God... The substance of these beings which He created is but nothingness...He created all at the sphere of senses and illusions... The existence of theuniverse is at the sphere of senses and illusions, and it is not material... Inreal, there is nothing in the outside except the Glorious Being, (who isGod).213

Imam Rabbani explicitly stated that all images presented to man arebut an illusion, and that they have no originals in the "outside".

This imaginary cycle is portrayed in imagination. It is seen to the extent thatit is portrayed. Yet with the mind's eye. In the outside, it seems as if it is seenwith the head's eye. However, the case is not so. It has neither a designationnor a trace in the outside. There is no circ*mstance to be seen. Even the face

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of a person reflecting on a mirror is like that. It has no constancy in the out-side. No doubt, both its constancy and image are in the IMAGINATION.God is He Who knows Best.214

Mevlana Cami stated the same fact which he discovered following thesigns of the Qur'an and by using his wit: "Whatever there is in the uni-verse are senses and illusions. They are either like reflections in mirrorsor shadows".

However, the number of those who have understood this factthroughout history has always been limited. Great scholars such as ImamRabbani have written that it might have been inconvenient to tell this factto the masses and that most people would not be able to grasp it.

In the age in which we live, this fact has been made empirical by thebody of evidence put forward by science. The fact that the universe is animage is described in such a concrete, clear, and explicit way for the firsttime in history.

For this reason, the 21st century will be a historical-turning pointwhen people will generally comprehend the divine realities and be led incrowds to God, the only Absolute Being. In the 21st century, it is the mate-rialistic creeds of the 19th century that will be relegated to the trash-heapsof history, God's existence and creation will be grasped, such facts asspacelessness and timelessness will be understood, humanity will breakfree of the centuries-old veils, deceits and superstitions enshrouding them.

It is not possible for this unavoidable course to be impeded by anyimage.


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Everything related above demonstrates that a "three-dimensionalspace" does not exist in reality, that it is a prejudice completely in-spired by perceptions and that one leads one's whole life in "space-

lessness". To assert the contrary would be to hold a superstitious beliefremoved from reason and scientific truth, for there is no valid proof of theexistence of a three-dimensional material world.

This fact refutes the primary assumption of the materialist philoso-phy that underlies evolutionary theory. This is the assumption that matteris absolute and eternal. The second assumption upon which the materialis-tic philosophy rests is the supposition that time is absolute and eternal.This is as superstitious as the first one.

The Perception Of TimeThe perception we call time is, in fact, a method by which one mo-

ment is compared to another. We can explain this with an example. For in-stance, when a person taps an object, he hears a particular sound. When hetaps the same object five minutes later, he hears another sound. The personperceives that there is an interval between the first sound and the secondand he calls this interval "time". Yet at the time he hears the second sound,the first sound he heard is no more than an imagination in his mind. It ismerely a bit of information in his memory. The person formulates the per-ception of "time" by comparing the moment in which he lives with whathe has in his memory. If this comparison is not made, there cannot beperception of time either.

Similarly, a person makes a comparison when he sees someone enter-ing a room through its door and sitting down in an armchair in the middleof the room. By the time this person sits in the armchair, the images relatedto the moments he opens the door, walks into the room, and makes hisway to the armchair are compiled as bits of information in the brain. The

Relativity of Time

and the Reality of Fate


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perception of time occurs when one compares the man sitting on the arm-chair with those bits of information he has.

In brief, time comes to exist as a result of the comparison made be-tween some illusions stored in the brain. If man did not have memory,then his brain would not be making such interpretations and therefore theperception of time would never have been formed. The reason why onedetermines himself to be thirty years old is only because he has accumu-lated information pertaining to those thirty years in his mind. If his mem-ory did not exist, then he would not be thinking of the existence of such apreceding period of time and he would only be experiencing the single"moment" he was living in.

The Scientific Explanation Of TimelessnessLet us try to clarify the subject by quoting explanations by various

scientists and scholars on the subject. Regarding the subject of time flow-


The perception of time comes with comparing one mo-ment to another. For example, we think that a period of

time elapses between two people holding out theirhands and then shaking them.

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ing backwards, the famous intellectual and Nobel laureate professor of ge-netics, François Jacob, states the following in his book Le Jeu des Possibles(The Possible and the Actual):

Films played backwards, make it possible for us to imagine a world in whichtime flows backwards. A world in which milk separates itself from the coffeeand jumps out of the cup to reach the milk-pan; a world in which light raysare emitted from the walls to be collected in a trap (gravity center) instead ofgushing out from a light source; a world in which a stone slopes to the palmof a man by the astonishing cooperation of innumerable drops of water mak-ing the stone possible to jump out of water. Yet, in such a world in which timehas such opposite features, the processes of our brain and the way our mem-ory compiles information, would similarly be functioning backwards. Thesame is true for the past and future and the world will appear to us exactly asit currently appears.215

Since our brain is accustomed to a certain sequence of events, theworld operates not as it is related above and we assume that time alwaysflows forward. However, this is a decision reached in the brain and there-

Relativity of Time and the Reality of Fate 251

Time is a concept entirely

contingent on the per-

ceiver. While a certain

time period seems long for one

person, it may seem short for

another. In order to under-

stand which one is right, we

need sources such as clocks

and calendars. It is impossible

to make correct judgments about

time without them.

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fore is completely relative. In reality, we can never know how time flows oreven whether it flows or not. This is an indication of the fact that time isnot an absolute fact but just a sort of perception.

The relativity of time is a fact also verified by the most importantphysicist of the 20th century, Albert Einstein. Lincoln Barnett, writes in hisbook The Universe and Dr. Einstein:

Along with absolute space, Einstein discarded the concept of absolute time-of a steady, unvarying inexorable universal time flow, streaming from the in-finite past to the infinite future. Much of the obscurity that has surroundedthe Theory of Relativity stems from man's reluctance to recognize that senseof time, like sense of color, is a form of perception. Just as space is simply apossible order of material objects, so time is simply a possible order ofevents. The subjectivity of time is best explained in Einstein's own words."The experiences of an individual" he says, "appear to us arranged in a seriesof events; in this series the single events which we remember appear to beordered according to the criterion of 'earlier' and 'later'. There exists, there-fore, for the individual, an I-time, or subjective time. This in itself is not mea-surable. I can, indeed, associate numbers with the events, in such a way thata greater number is associated with the later event than with an earlierone.216

Einstein himself pointed out, as quoted from Barnett's book: "spaceand time are forms of intuition, which can no more be divorced from con-sciousness than can our concepts of colour, shape, or size." According tothe Theory of General Relativity: "time has no independent existenceapart from the order of events by which we measure it." 217

Since time consists of perception, it depends entirely on the perceiverand is therefore relative.

The speed at which time flows differs according to the references weuse to measure it because there is no natural clock in the human body to in-dicate precisely how fast time passes. As Lincoln Barnett wrote: "Just asthere is no such thing as color without an eye to discern it, so an instant oran hour or a day is nothing without an event to mark it."218

The relativity of time is plainly experienced in dreams. Althoughwhat we see in our dream seems to last for hours, in fact, it only lasts for afew minutes, and even a few seconds.

Let us think on an example to clarify the subject further. Let us as-sume that we were put into a room with a single window that was specifi-cally designed and we were kept there for a certain period of time. Let


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there be a clock in the room by which we can see the amount of time thathas passed. During this time, we see the sun setting and rising at certainintervals from the room's window. A few days later, the answer we wouldgive to the question about the amount of time we had spent in the roomwould be based both on the information we had collected by looking at theclock from time to time and on the computation we had done by referringto how many times the sun had set and risen. For example, we estimatethat we had spent three days in the room. However, if the person who putus in that room comes up to us and says that we spent only two days in theroom and that the sun we had been seeing from the window was falselyproduced by a simulation machine and that the clock in the room was es-pecially regulated to move slower, then the calculation we had donewould bear no meaning.

This example confirms that the information we have about the rate ofthe passage of time is based on relative references. The relativity of thetime is a scientific fact also proven by scientific methodology. Einstein'sTheory of General Relativity maintains that the speed of time changes de-pending on the speed of the object and its distance from the centre of grav-ity. As speed increases, time is shortened, compressed; and slows down asif it comes to the point of "stopping".

Let us explain this with an example given by Einstein himself. Imag-ine two twins, one of whom stays on earth while the other goes travellingin space at a speed close to the speed of light. When he comes back, thetraveller will see that his brother has grown much older than he has. Thereason is that time flows much slower for the person who travels at speedsnear the speed of light. If the same example were applied to a space-travel-ling father and his son staying back on earth, it would look like that: If thefather was 27 years old when he set out and his son was 3, the father will,when he comes back to the earth 30 years later (earth time), be only 30,whereas the son will be 33 years old.219

It should be pointed out that this relativity of time is caused not by theslowing down or running fast of clocks or the slow running of a mechani-cal spring. It is rather the result of the differentiated operation periods ofthe entire material system which goes as deep as sub-atomic particles. Inother words, the shortening of time is not like acting in a slow-motion pic-ture for the person experiencing it. In such a setting where time shortens,

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one's heartbeats, cell replications, and brain functions, and so on all oper-ate slower than those of the slower-moving person on Earth. The persongoes on with his daily life and does not notice the shortening of time at all.Indeed the shortening does not even become apparent until the compari-son is made.

Relativity In The Qur'anThe conclusion to which we are led by the findings of modern science

is that time is not an absolute fact as supposed by materialists, but only arelative perception. What is more interesting is that this fact, undiscov-ered until the 20th century by science, was imparted to mankind in theQur'an 14 centuries ago. There are various references in the Qur'an to therelativity of time.

It is possible to see the scientifically-proven fact that time is a psycho-logical perception dependent on events, setting, and conditions in manyverses of the Qur'an. For instance, the entire life of a person is a very shorttime as we are informed by the Qur'an;

On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer (His Call) with(words of) His Praise and Obedience, and you will think that you havestayed (in this world) but a little while! (Surat al-Isra, 52)

And on the Day when He shall gather them together, (it will seem to them) asif they had not tarried (on earth) longer than an hour of a day: they willrecognise each other. (Surah Yunus, 45)

In some verses, it is indicated that people perceive time differentlyand that sometimes people can perceive a very short period of time as avery lengthy one. The following conversation of people held during theirjudgement in the Hereafter is a good example of this:

He will say: "What number of years did you stay on earth?" They will say:"We stayed a day or part of a day: but ask those who keep account." He willsay: "You stayed not but a little, if you had only known!" (Surat al-Mu-menoon, 112-114)

In some other verses it is stated that time may flow at different pacesin different settings:

Yet they ask you to hasten on the Punishment! But God will not fail in HisPromise. Verily a Day in the sight of your Lord is like a thousand years ofyour reckoning. (Surat al-Hajj, 47)


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The angels and the spirit ascend unto him in a day the measure whereof is(as) fifty thousand years. (Surat al-Maarij, 4)

These verses are all manifest expressions of the relativity of time. Thefact that this result only recently understood by science in the 20th centurywas communicated to man 1,400 years ago by the Qur'an is an indicationof the revelation of the Qur'an by God, Who encompasses the whole timeand space.

The narration in many other verses of the Qur'an reveals that time is aperception. This is particularly evident in the stories. For instance, God haskept the Companions of the Cave, a believing group mentioned in theQur'an, in a deep sleep for more than three centuries. When they wereawoken, these people thought that they had stayed in that state but a littlewhile, and could not figure out how long they slept:

Then We draw (a veil) over their ears, for a number of years, in the Cave, (sothat they heard not). Then We raised them up that We might know which ofthe two parties would best calculate the time that they had tarried. (Surat al-Kahf, 11-12)

Such (being their state), we raised them up (from sleep), that they mightquestion each other. Said one of them, "How long have you stayed (here)?"They said, "We have stayed (perhaps) a day, or part of a day." (At length) they(all) said, "God (alone) knows best how long you have stayed here... (Surat al-Kahf, 19)

The situation told in the below verse is also evidence that time is intruth a psychological perception.

Or (take) the similitude of one who passed by a hamlet, all in ruins to itsroofs. He said: "Oh! how shall God bring it (ever) to life, after (this) its death?"but God caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again).He said: "How long did you tarry (thus)?" He said: (Perhaps) a day or part ofa day." He said: "Nay, you have tarried thus a hundred years; but look at yourfood and your drink; they show no signs of age; and look at your donkey:And that We may make of you a sign unto the people, Look further at thebones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh." When thiswas shown clearly to him, he said: "I know that God has power over allthings." (Surat al-Baqara, 259)

The above verse clearly emphasises that God Who created time is un-bound by it. Man, on the other hand, is bound by time that God ordains. Asin the verse, man is even incapable of knowing how long he stayed in his

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sleep. In such a state, to assert that time is absolute (just like the materialistsdo in their distorted mentality), would be very unreasonable.

DestinyThis relativity of time clears up a very important matter. The relativity

is so variable that a period of time appearing billions of years' duration tous, may last only a second in another dimension. Moreover, an enormousperiod of time extending from the world's beginning to its end may noteven last a second but just an instant in another dimension.

This is the very essence of the concept of destiny- a concept that is notwell understood by most people, especially materialists, who deny it com-pletely. Destiny is God's perfect knowledge of all events past or future. Amajority of people question how God can already know events that havenot yet been experienced and this leads them to fail in understanding theauthenticity of destiny. However, "events not yet experienced" are not yetexperienced only for us. God is not bound by time or space for He Himselfhas created them. For this reason, the past, the future, and the present areall the same to God; for Him, everything has already taken place and fin-ished.

Lincoln Barnett explains how the Theory of General Relativity leadsto this fact in The Universe and Dr. Einstein: According to Barnett, the uni-verse can be "encompassed in its entire majesty only by a cosmic intel-lect".220 The will that Barnett calls "the cosmic intellect" is the wisdom andknowledge of God, Who prevails over the entire universe. Just as we eas-ily see a ruler's beginning, middle, and end, and all the units in between asa whole, God knows the time we are subjected to like a single momentright from its beginning to the end. People experience incidents only whentheir time comes and they witness the fate God has created for them.

It is also important to draw attention to the shallowness of the dis-torted understanding of destiny prevalent in society. This distorted convic-tion of fate holds a superstitious belief that God has determined a "destiny"for every man but that these destinies can sometimes be changed by peo-ple. For instance, for a patient who returns from death's door people makesuperficial statements like "He defeated his destiny". Yet, no one is able tochange his destiny. The person who turns from death's door does not diebecause he is destined not to die then. It is again the destiny of those peo-


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ple who deceive themselves by saying "I defeated my destiny" to say soand maintain such a mindset.

Destiny is the eternal knowledge of God and for God, Who knowstime like a single moment and Who prevails over the whole time andspace, everything is determined and finished in a destiny. We also under-stand from what is related in the Qur'an that time is one for God: some in-cidents that appear to happen to us in the future are related in the Qur'anin such a way that they already took place long before. For instance, theverses that describe the account that people are to give to God in the here-after are related as events which already occurred long ago:

And the trumpet is blown, and all who are in the heavens and all who are inthe earth swoon away, save him whom God willeth. Then it is blown a sec-ond time, and behold them standing waiting! And the earth shineth with thelight of her Lord, and the Book is set up, and the prophets and the witnessesare brought, and it is judged between them with truth, and they are notwronged... And those who disbelieve are driven unto hell in troops... Andthose who keep their duty to their Lord are driven unto the Garden introops..." (Surat az-Zumar, 68-73)

Some other verses on this subject are:And every soul came, along with it a driver and a witness. (Surat al-Qaf, 21)

And the heaven is cloven asunder, so that on that day it is frail. (Surat al-Haaqqa, 16)

And because they were patient and constant, He rewarded them with a Gar-den and (garments of) silk. Reclining in the (Garden) on raised thrones, theysaw there neither the sun's (excessive heat) nor excessive cold. (Surat al-Insan, 12-13)

And Hell is placed in full view for (all) to see. (Surat an-Naziat, 36)

But on this Day the Believers laugh at the Unbelievers (Surat al-Mutaffifin, 34)

And the Sinful saw the fire and apprehended that they have to fall therein:no means did they find to turn away therefrom. (Surat al-Kahf, 53)

As may be seen, occurrences that are going to take place after ourdeath (from our point of view) are related as already experienced and pastevents in the Qur'an. God is not bound by the relative time frame that weare confined in. God has willed these things in timelessness: people havealready performed them and all these events have been lived through andended. It is imparted in the verse below that every event, be it big or small,

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is within the knowledge of God and recorded in a book:

In whatever business thou may be, and whatever portion you may be recit-ing from the Qur'an, and whatever deed you (mankind) may be doing, Weare witnesses thereof when you are deeply engrossed therein. Nor is hiddenfrom your Lord (so much as) the weight of an atom on the earth or in heaven.And not the least and not the greatest of these things but are recorded in aclear record. (Surah Jonah, 61)

The Worry Of The MaterialistsThe issues discussed in this chapter, namely the truth underlying

matter, timelessness, and spacelessness, are indeed extremely clear. As ex-pressed before, these are absolutely not any sort of a philosophy or a wayof thought, but crystal-clear truths impossible to deny. In addition to itsbeing a technical reality, the rational and logical evidence also admits noother alternatives on this issue: the universe is an illusory entirety with allthe matter composing it and all the people living on it. It is a collection ofperceptions.

Materialists have a hard time in understanding this issue. For in-stance, if we return to Politzer's bus example: although Politzer technicallyknew that he could not step out of his perceptions he could only admit itfor certain cases. That is, for Politzer, events take place in the brain until thebus crash, but as soon as the bus crash takes place, things go out of thebrain and gain a physical reality. The logical defect at this point is veryclear: Politzer has made the same mistake as the materialist philosopherJohnson who said "I hit the stone, my foot hurts, therefore it exists" andcould not understand that the shock felt after bus impact was in fact a mereperception as well.

The subliminal reason why materialists cannot comprehend this sub-ject is their fearing the fact they will face when they comprehend it. Lin-coln Barnett informs us that this subject was "discerned" by somescientists:

Along with philosophers' reduction of all objective reality to a shadow-worldof perceptions, scientists have become aware of the alarming limitations ofman's senses.221

Any reference made to the fact that matter and time is a perceptionarouses great fear in a materialist, because these are the only notions he re-


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lies on as absolute beings. He, in a sense, takes these as idols to worship;because he thinks that he is created by matter and time (through evolu-tion).

When he feels that the universe he thinks he is living in, the world, hisown body, other people, other materialist philosophers whose ideas he isinfluenced by, and in short, everything, is a perception, he feels over-whelmed by the horror of it all. Everything he depends on, believes in, andtake recourse to vanishes suddenly. He feels the despair which he, essen-tially, will experience on Judgment Day in its real sense as described in theverse "That Day shall they (openly) show (their) submission to God; andall their inventions shall leave them in the lurch." (Surat an-Nahl, 87)

From then on, this materialist tries to convince himself of the reality ofmatter, and makes up "evidence" for this end; hits his fist on the wall, kicksstones, shouts, yells, but can never escape from the reality.

Just as they want to dismiss this reality from their minds, they alsowant other people to discard it. They are also aware that if the true nature ofmatter is known by people in general, the primitiveness of their own philos-ophy and the ignorance of their worldview will be bared for all to see, andthere will be no ground left on which they can rationalise their views. Thesefears are the reason why they are so disturbed of the fact related here.

God states that the fears of the unbelievers will be intensified in thehereafter. On Judgement Day, they will be addressed thus:

One day shall We gather them all together: We shall say to those who as-cribed partners (to Us): "Where are the partners whom you (invented and)talked about?" (Surat al-Anaam, 22)

After that, unbelievers will bear witness to their possessions, childrenand close circle whom they had assumed to be real and ascribed as part-ners to God leaving them and vanishing. God stated this fact in the verse"Behold! how they lie against their own souls! But the (lie) which theyinvented will leave them in the lurch" (Surat al-Anaam, 24).

The Gain Of BelieversWhile the fact that matter and time is a perception alarms material-

ists, just the opposite holds true for true believers. People of faith becomevery glad when they have perceived the secret behind matter because thisreality is the key to all questions. With this key, all secrets are unlocked.

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One comes to easily understand many issues that he previously had diffi-culty in understanding.

As said before, the questions of death, paradise, hell, the hereafter,changing dimensions, and important questions such as "Where is God?","What was before God?", "Who created God?", "How long will the life incemetery last?", "Where are heaven and hell?", and "Where do heaven andhell currently exist?" will be easily answered. It will be understood withwhat kind of a system God created the entire universe from nothingness.So much so that, with this secret, the questions of "when", and "where"become meaningless because there will be no time and no place left.When spacelessness is comprehended, it will be understood that hell,heaven and earth are all actually in the same place. If timelessness is un-derstood, it will be understood that everything takes place at a single mo-ment: nothing is waited for and time does not go by, because everythinghas already happened and finished.

When this secret is delved into, the world becomes like heaven for abeliever. All distressful material worries, anxieties, and fears vanish. Theperson grasps that the entire universe has a single Sovereign, that Hechanges the entire physical world as He pleases and that all he has to do isto turn unto Him. He then submits himself entirely to God "to be devotedto His service". (Surat Aal-e Imran, 35)

To comprehend this secret is the greatest gain in the world. With this secret, another very important reality mentioned in the

Qur'an is unveiled: the fact that "God is nearer to man than his jugularvein" (Surah Qaf, 16). As everybody knows, the jugular vein is inside thebody. What could be nearer to a person than his inside? This situation canbe easily explained by the reality of spacelessness. This verse can also bemuch better comprehended by understanding this secret.

This is the plain truth. It should be well established that there is noother helper and provider for man than God. There is nothing but God;He is the only absolute being Whom one can seek refuge in, appeal forhelp, and count on for reward.

Wherever we turn, there is the countenance of God.


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Evolution propaganda, which has gained acceleration lately, is a seri-ous threat to national beliefs and moral values. The Science Re-search Foundation, which is quite aware of this fact, has

undertaken the duty of informing Turkish public about the scientific truthof the matter.

First Conference-IstanbulThe first of the series of international conferences organised by Sci-

ence Research Foundation (SRF) took place in 1998. Entitled "The Collapseof the Theory of Evolution: The Fact of Creation", it was held in Istanbul onApril 4, 1998. The conference, which was a great success, was attended byrecognised experts from around the world and provided a platform onwhich the theory of evolution was for the first time questioned and refutedscientifically in Turkey. People from all segments of Turkish society at-tended the conference, which drew a great deal of attention. Those whocould not find place in the hall followed the conference live from theclosed-circuit television system outside.

The conference included famous speakers from Turkey and fromabroad. Following the speeches of SRF members, which revealed the ulte-rior ideological motives underlying the theory of evolution, a video docu-mentary prepared by SRF was presented.

SRF Conferences:

Activities for Informing the

Public About Evolution


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Dr Duane Gish and Dr Kenneth Cumming, two world-renowned sci-entists from the Institute for Creation Research in the USA are authoritieson biochemistry and paleontology. They demonstrated with substantialproof that the theory of evolution has no validity whatsoever. During theconference, one of the most esteemed Turkish scientists today, Dr CevatBabuna illustrated the miracles in each phase of a human being's creationwith a slide show that shook the "coincidence hypothesis" of evolution toits roots.

Second Conference-IstanbulThe second international conference in the same series was held three

months after the first on July 5, 1998 in Cemal Resit Rey Conference Hallagain in Istanbul. The speakers-six Americans and one Turk-gave talksdemonstrating how Darwinism had been invalidated by modern science.Cemal Resit Rey Conference Hall, with a seating capacity of a thousand,was filled to overflowing by an audience of rapt listeners.

The speakers and their subjects at this conference are summarisedbelow.

Professor Michael P. Girouard: In his speech, "Is it Possible for Life toEmerge by Coincidences?", Michael Girouard, a professor of biology atSouthern Louisiana University, explained through various examples thecomplexity of proteins, the basic units of life, and concluded that theycould only have come into existence as a result of skilled design.

Dr Edward Boudreaux: In his speech, "The Design in Chemistry", Ed-

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ward Boudreaux, a professor of chemistry at the University of New Or-leans, noted that some chemical elements must have been deliberatelyarranged by creation in order for life to exist.

Professor Carl Fliermans: A widely-known scientist in the USA and amicrobiology professor at Indiana University conducting a research on"the neutralisation of chemical wastes by bacteria" supported by the USDepartment of Defence, Carl Fliermans refuted evolutionist claims at themicrobiological level.

Professor Edip Keha: A professor of biochemistry, Edip Keha, was theonly Turkish speaker of the conference. He presented basic information onthe cell and stressed through evidence that the cell could only have comeinto being as a result of conscious design.

Professor David Menton: A professor of anatomy at Washington Uni-versity, David Menton, in a speech that was accompanied by a very inter-esting computer display, examined the differences between the anatomiesof the feathers of birds and the scales of reptiles, thus proving the invalid-ity of the hypothesis that birds evolved from reptiles.

Professor Duane Gish: Famous evolutionist expert Professor Gish, inhis speech entitled "The Origin of Man", refuted the thesis of man's evolu-tion from apes.

ICR President Professor John Morris: Professor Morris, the presidentof the Institute for Creation Research and a famous geologist, gave aspeech on the ideological and philosophical commitments lying behindevolution. He further explainedthat this theory has been turnedinto a dogma and that its de-fenders believe in Darwinismwith a religious fervour.

Having listened to all thesespeeches, the audience wit-nessed that evolution is a dog-matic belief that is invalidatedby science in all aspects. In addi-tion, the poster exhibition enti-tled "The Collapse of the Theoryof Evolution: The Fact of Cre-

263SRF Conferences

World-renowned evolution expert Dr Duane Gish,receiving his SRF plaque from Dr

Nevzat Yalcintas, A member of Turkish Parliament.

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ation" organised by the Science Research Foundation and displayed in thelobby of CRR Conference Hall attracted considerable interest. The exhibi-tion consisted of 35 posters, each highlighting either a basic claim of evolu-tion or a creation evidence.

Third Conference-AnkaraThe third international conference of the series was held on July 12,

1998 at the Sheraton Hotel in Ankara. Participants in the conference-threeAmericans and one Turk-put forward explicit and substantial evidencethat Darwinism has been invalidated by modern science.

Although the conference hall at the Ankara Sheraton Hotel was de-signed to hold an audience of about a thousand, the number of attendeesat the conference exceeded 2,500. Screens were set up outside the confer-ence hall for those who could not find place inside. The poster exhibitionentitled "The Collapse of the Theory of Evolution: The Fact of Creation"held next to the conference hall also attracted considerable attention. At

PROF. DUANE GISH:"The fossil record refutes the evolutionary theory and itdemonstrates that speciesappeared on Earth fullyformed and well designed.This is a concrete evidencefor that they were createdby God."

PROF. DAVID MENTON: "I am examining theanatomical featuresof living things for 30years. What I saw hasalways been the evidence of God's creation."

PROF. EDWARDBOUDREAUX:"The world we livein, and its naturallaws are very pre-cisely set up by theCreator for the benefit of us, hu-mans."

PROF. CARLFLIERMANS: "Modernbiochemistry provesthat organisms are marvelously designedand this fact aloneproves the existance ofthe Creator."

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Scenes from National Conferences of SRF


Izmir Balikesir

Samsun Kayseri

Giresun Bursa

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the end of the conference, the speakers received a standing ovation, whichproved how much the public craved enlightenment on the scientific reali-ties regarding the evolution deceit and the fact of creation.

Following the success of these international conferences, the ScienceResearch Foundation began organising similar conferences all over Turkey.Between August 98 and end 2002 alone, over 500 conferences were held inTurkey's all of 80 cities and towns. SRF continues to conduct its confer-ences in different parts of the country. SRF has also held conferences inEngland, Holland, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Azerbaijan, theUnited States and Canada.

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Glory be to You!

We have no knowledge except what

You have taught us. You are

the All-Knowing, the All-Wise.

(Surat al-Baqara, 32)

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1 Cliff, Conner, "Evolution vs. Creationism:

In Defense of Scientific Thinking", Interna-

tional Socialist Review (Monthly Magazine

Supplement to the Militant), November


2 Ali Demirsoy, Kal›t›m ve Evrim (Inheritance

and Evolution), Ankara: Meteksan Publish-

ing Co., 1984, p. 61.

3 Michael J. Behe, Darwin's Black Box, New

York: Free Press, 1996, pp. 232-233.

4 Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker,

London: W. W. Norton, 1986, p. 159.

5 Jonathan Wells, Icons of Evolution: Science or

Myth? Why Much of What We Teach About

Evolution is Wrong, Regnery Publishing,

2000, pp. 235-236

6 Dan Graves, Science of Faith: Forty-Eight Bi-

ographies of Historic Scientists and Their

Christian Faith, Grand Rapids, MI, Kregel


7 Science, Philosophy, And Religion: A Sympo-

sium, 1941, CH.13.

8 Max Planck, Where is Science Going? ,



9 H. S. Lipson, "A Physicist's View of Dar-

win's Theory", Evolution Trends in Plants,

Vol 2, No. 1, 1988, p. 6.

10 Although Darwin came up with the claim

that his theory was totally independent

from that of Lamarck's, he gradually started

to rely on Lamarck's assertions. Especially

the 6th and the last edition of The Origin of

Species is full of examples of Lamarck's "in-

heritance of acquired traits". See Benjamin

Farrington, What Darwin Really Said, New

York: Schocken Books, 1966, p. 64.

11 Michael Ruse, "Nonliteralist Antievolu-

tion", AAAS Symposium: "The New

Antievolutionism," February 13, 1993,

Boston, MA

12 Steven M. Stanley, Macroevolution: Pattern

and Process, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman

and Co. 1979, pp. 35, 159.

13 Colin Patterson, "Cladistics", Interview with

Brian Leek, Peter Franz, March 4, 1982,


14 Jonathan Wells, Icons of Evolution: Science or

Myth? Why Much of What We Teach About

Evolution is Wrong, Regnery Publishing,

2000, p. 141-151

15 Jerry Coyne, "Not Black and White", a re-

view of Michael Majerus's Melanism: Evo-

lution in Action, Nature, 396 (1988), p. 35-36

16 Stephen Jay Gould, "The Return of Hopeful

Monsters", Natural History, Vol 86, July-Au-

gust 1977, p. 28.

17 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Fac-

simile of the First Edition, Harvard Univer-

sity Press, 1964, p. 189.

18 Ibid, p. 177.

19 B. G. Ranganathan, Origins?, Pennsylvania:

The Banner Of Truth Trust, 1988.

20 Warren Weaver, "Genetic Effects of Atomic

Radiation", Science, Vol 123, June 29, 1956,

p. 1159.

21 Gordon R. Taylor, The Great Evolution Mys-

tery, New York: Harper & Row, 1983, p. 48.

22 Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, Lon-

don: River Publishing, 1984, p. 70.

23 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Fac-

simile of the First Edition, Harvard Univer-

sity Press, 1964, p. 179.

24 Ibid, pp. 172, 280.


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25 Derek V. Ager, "The Nature of the Fossil

Record", Proceedings of the British Geolog-

ical Association, Vol 87, 1976, p. 133.

26 Mark Czarnecki, "The Revival of the Cre-

ationist Crusade", MacLean's, January 19,

1981, p. 56.

27 R. Wesson, Beyond Natural Selection, MIT

Press, Cambridge, MA, 1991, p. 45

28 David Raup, "Conflicts Between Darwin

and Paleontology", Bulletin, Field Museum

of Natural History, Vol 50, January 1979, p.


29 Richard Monastersky, "Mysteries of the

Orient", Discover, April 1993, p. 40.

30 Richard Fortey, "The Cambrian Explosion

Exploded?", Science, vol 293, No 5529, 20

July 2001, p. 438-439.

31 Ibid.

32 Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker,

London: W. W. Norton 1986, p. 229.

33 Douglas J. Futuyma, Science on Trial, New

York: Pantheon Books, 1983, p. 197.

34 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Fac-

simile of the First Edition, Harvard Univer-

sity Press, 1964, p. 302.

35 Stefan Bengston, Nature, Vol. 345, 1990, p.


36 The New Animal Phylogeny: Reliability

And Implications, Proc. of Nat. Aca. of Sci.,

25 April 2000, vol 97, No 9, p. 4453-4456.

37 Ibid.

38 Gerald T. Todd, "Evolution of the Lung and

the Origin of Bony Fishes: A Casual Rela-

tionship", American Zoologist, Vol 26, No. 4,

1980, p. 757.

39 R. L. Carroll, Vertebrate Paleontology and

Evolution, New York: W. H. Freeman and

Co. 1988, p. 4.; Robert L. Carroll, Patterns

and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution, Cam-

bridge University Press, 1997, p. 296-97

40 Edwin H. Colbert, M. Morales, Evolution of

the Vertebrates, New York: John Wiley and

Sons, 1991, p. 99.

41 Jean-Jacques Hublin, The Hamlyn Ency-

clopædia of Prehistoric Animals, New York:

The Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd., 1984,

p. 120.

42 Jacques Millot, "The Coelacanth", Scientific

American, Vol 193, December 1955, p. 39.

43 Bilim ve Teknik Magazine, November 1998,

No: 372, p. 21.

44 Robert L. Carroll, Vertebrate Paleontology and

Evolution, New York: W. H. Freeman and

Co., 1988, p. 198.

45 Engin Korur, "Gözlerin ve Kanatlar›n S›rr›"

(The Mystery of the Eyes and the Wings),

Bilim ve Teknik, No. 203, October 1984, p. 25.

46 Nature, Vol 382, August, 1, 1996, p. 401.

47 Carl O. Dunbar, Historical Geology, New

York: John Wiley and Sons, 1961, p. 310.

48 L. D. Martin, J. D. Stewart, K. N. Whet-

stone, The Auk, Vol 98, 1980, p. 86.

49 Ibid, p. 86; L. D. Martin, "Origins of Higher

Groups of Tetrapods", Ithaca, New York:

Comstock Publising Association, 1991, pp.

485, 540.

50 S. Tarsitano, M. K. Hecht, Zoological Journal

of the Linnaean Society, Vol 69, 1985, p. 178;

A. D. Walker, Geological Magazine, Vol 177,

1980, p. 595.

51 Pat Shipman, "Birds do it... Did Dinosaurs?",

New Scientist, February 1, 1997, p. 31.

52 "Old Bird", Discover, March 21, 1997.

53 Ibid.

54 Pat Shipman, "Birds Do It... Did Di-

nosaurs?", p. 28.

Notes 269

EVOLUTION DECEIT - [PDF Document] (272)

55 Robert L. Carroll, Patterns and Processes of

Vertebrate Evolution, Cambridge University

Press, 1997, p. 280-81.

56 Pat Shipman, "Birds Do It... Did Di-

nosaurs?", p. 28.

57 Ibid.

58 Roger Lewin, "Bones of Mammals, Ances-

tors Fleshed Out", Science, vol 212, June 26,

1981, p. 1492.

59 George Gaylord Simpson, Life Before Man,

New York: Time-Life Books, 1972, p. 42.

60 R. Eric Lombard, "Review of Evolutionary

Principles of the Mammalian Middle Ear,

Gerald Fleischer", Evolution, Vol 33, Decem-

ber 1979, p. 1230.

61 David R. Pilbeam, "Rearranging Our Fam-

ily Tree", Nature, June 1978, p. 40.

62 Earnest A. Hooton, Up From The Ape, New

York: McMillan, 1931, p. 332.

63 Malcolm Muggeridge, The End of Christen-

dom, Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1980, p. 59.

64 Stephen Jay Gould, "Smith Woodward's

Folly", New Scientist, February 5, 1979, p.


65 Kenneth Oakley, William Le Gros Clark & J.

S, "Piltdown", Meydan Larousse, Vol 10, p.


66 Stephen Jay Gould, "Smith Woodward's

Folly", New Scientist, April 5, 1979, p. 44.

67 W. K. Gregory, "Hesperopithecus Appar-

ently Not An Ape Nor A Man", Science, Vol

66, December 1927, p. 579.

68 Philips Verner Bradford, Harvey Blume,

Ota Benga: The Pygmy in The Zoo, New York:

Delta Books, 1992.

69 David Pilbeam, "Humans Lose an Early

Ancestor", Science, April 1982, pp. 6-7.

70 C. C. Swisher III, W. J. Rink, S. C. Antón, H.

P. Schwarcz, G. H. Curtis, A. Suprijo, Widi-

asmoro, "Latest hom*o erectus of Java: Po-

tential Contemporaneity with hom*o

sapiens in Southeast Asia", Science, Volume

274, Number 5294, Issue of 13 Dec 1996, pp.

1870-1874; also see, Jeffrey Kluger, "Not So

Extinct After All: The Primitive hom*o

Erectus May Have Survived Long Enough

To Coexist With Modern Humans, Time,

December 23, 1996

71 Solly Zuckerman, Beyond The Ivory Tower,

New York: Toplinger Publications, 1970,

pp. 75-94.

72 Charles E. Oxnard, "The Place of Australop-

ithecines in Human Evolution: Grounds for

Doubt", Nature, Vol 258, p. 389.

73 Holly Smith, American Journal of Physical

Antropology, Vol 94, 1994, pp. 307-325.

74 Fred Spoor, Bernard Wood, Frans Zonn-

eveld, "Implication of Early Hominid

Labryntine Morphology for Evolution of

Human Bipedal Locomotion", Nature, vol

369, June 23, 1994, p. 645-648.

75 Tim Bromage, New Scientist, vol 133, 1992,

p. 38-41.

76 J. E. Cronin, N. T. Boaz, C. B. Stringer, Y.

Rak, "Tempo and Mode in Hominid Evo-

lution", Nature, Vol 292, 1981, p. 113-122.

77 C. L. Brace, H. Nelson, N. Korn, M. L.

Brace, Atlas of Human Evolution, 2.b. New

York: Rinehart and Wilson, 1979.

78 Alan Walker, Scientific American, vol 239

(2), 1978, p. 54.

79 Bernard Wood, Mark Collard, "The

Human Genus", Science, vol 284, No 5411,

2 April 1999, p. 65-71.


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80 Marvin Lubenow, Bones of Contention,

Grand Rapids, Baker, 1992, p. 83.

81 Boyce Rensberger, The Washington Post,

November 19, 1984.

82 Ibid.

83 Richard Leakey, The Making of Mankind,

London: Sphere Books, 1981, p. 62.

84 Marvin Lubenow, Bones of Contention,

Grand Rapids, Baker, 1992. p. 136.

85 Pat Shipman, "Doubting Dmanisi", Ameri-

can Scientist, November- December 2000,

p. 491.

86 Erik Trinkaus, "Hard Times Among the

Neanderthals", Natural History, vol 87, De-

cember 1978, p. 10; R. L. Holloway, "The

Neanderthal Brain: What Was Primitive",

American Journal of Physical Anthropol-

ogy Supplement, Vol 12, 1991, p. 94.

87 Alan Walker, Science, vol 207, 1980, p. 1103.

88 A. J. Kelso, Physical Antropology, 1st ed.,

New York: J. B. Lipincott Co., 1970, p. 221;

M. D. Leakey, Olduvai Gorge, Vol 3, Cam-

bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971,

p. 272.

89 S. J. Gould, Natural History, Vol 85, 1976, p.


90 Time, November 1996.

91 L. S. B. Leakey, The Origin of hom*o Sapiens,

ed. F. Borde, Paris: UNESCO, 1972, p. 25-

29; L. S. B. Leakey, By the Evidence, New

York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974.

92 "Is This The Face of Our Past", Discover,

December 1997, p. 97-100.

93 A. J. Kelso, Physical Anthropology, 1.b.,

1970, pp. 221; M. D. Leakey, Olduvai

Gorge, Vol 3, Cambridge: Cambridge Uni-

versity Press, 1971, p. 272.

94 Donald C. Johanson & M. A. Edey, Lucy:

The Beginnings of Humankind, New York:

Simon & Schuster, 1981, p. 250.

95 Science News, Vol 115, 1979, p. 196-197.

96 Ian Anderson, New Scientist, Vol 98, 1983,

p. 373.

97 Russell H. Tuttle, Natural History, March

1990, p. 61-64.

98 Ruth Henke, "Aufrecht aus den Baumen",

Focus, Vol 39, 1996, p. 178.

99 Elaine Morgan, The Scars of Evolution, New

York: Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 5.

100 Solly Zuckerman, Beyond The Ivory Tower,

New York: Toplinger Publications, 1970, p.


101 Robert Locke, "Family Fights", Discovering

Archaeology, July/August 1999, p. 36-39.

102 Ibid.

103 Henry Gee, In Search of Time: Beyond the

Fossil Record to a New History of Life, New

York, The Free Press, 1999, p. 126-127.

104 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited,

Nashville: Thomas Nelson Co., 1991, pp.


105 "Hoyle on Evolution", Nature, Vol 294, No-

vember 12, 1981, p. 105.

106 Ali Demirsoy, Kal›t›m ve Evrim (Inheritance

and Evolution), Ankara: Meteksan Publish-

ing Co., 1984, p. 64.

107 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited,

Nashville: Thomas Nelson Co., 1991, p.


108 Ibid, p. 305.

109 J. D. Thomas, Evolution and Faith, Abilene,

TX, ACU Press, 1988. p. 81-82.

110 Robert Shapiro, Origins: A Sceptics Guide to

the Creation of Life on Earth, New York,

Summit Books, 1986. p.127.

111 Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe,

Notes 271

EVOLUTION DECEIT - [PDF Document] (274)

Evolution from Space, New York, Simon &

Schuster, 1984, p. 148.

112 Ibid, p. 130.

113 Fabbri Britannica Bilim Ansiklopedisi

(Fabbri Britannica Science Encyclopae-

dia), vol 2, No 22, p. 519.

114 Richard B. Bliss & Gary E. Parker, Origin of

Life, California: 1979, p. 14.

115 Stanley Miller, Molecular Evolution of Life:

Current Status of the Prebiotic Synthesis of

Small Molecules, 1986, p. 7.

116 Kevin Mc Kean, Bilim ve Teknik, No 189, p.


117 J. P. Ferris, C. T. Chen, "Photochemistry of

Methane, Nitrogen, and Water Mixture As

a Model for the Atmosphere of the Primi-

tive Earth", Journal of American Chemical

Society, vol 97:11, 1975, p. 2964.

118 "New Evidence on Evolution of Early At-

mosphere and Life", Bulletin of the Ameri-

can Meteorological Society, vol 63,

November 1982, p. 1328-1330.

119 Richard B. Bliss & Gary E. Parker, Origin of

Life, California, 1979, p. 25.

120 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited,

Nashville: Thomas Nelson Co., 1991, p.


121 Richard B. Bliss & Gary E. Parker, Origin of

Life, California: 1979, p. 25.

122 Ibid.

123 S. W. Fox, K. Harada, G. Kramptiz, G.

Mueller, "Chemical Origin of Cells", Chem-

ical Engineering News, June 22, 1970, p. 80.

124 Frank B. Salisbury, "Doubts about the

Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution",

American Biology Teacher, September 1971,

p. 336.

125 Paul Auger, De La Physique Theorique a la

Biologie, 1970, p. 118.

126 Francis Crick, Life Itself: It's Origin and Na-

ture, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1981, p.


127 Ali Demirsoy, Kal›t›m ve Evrim (Inheritance

and Evolution), Ankara: Meteksan Publish-

ing Co., 1984, p. 39.

128 Homer Jacobson, "Information, Reproduc-

tion and the Origin of Life", American Sci-

entist, January 1955, p.121.

129 Reinhard Junker & Siegfried Scherer,

"Entstehung und Geschichte der Lebewe-

sen", Weyel, 1986, p. 89.

130 Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Cri-

sis, London: Burnett Books, 1985, p. 351.

131 John Horgan, "In the Beginning", Scientific

American, vol. 264, February 1991, p. 119.

132 G.F. Joyce, L. E. Orgel, "Prospects for Un-

derstanding the Origin of the RNA

World", In the RNA World, New York: Cold

Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1993, p.


133 Jacques Monod, Chance and Necessity, New

York: 1971, p.143.

134 Leslie E. Orgel, "The Origin of Life on the

Earth", Scientific American, October 1994,

vol. 271, p. 78.

135 Gordon C. Mills, Dean Kenyon, "The RNA

World: A Critique", Origins & Design,

17:1, 1996

136 Brig Klyce, The RNA World, http://www.


137 Chandra Wickramasinghe, Interview in

London Daily Express, August 14, 1981.

138 Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View,

New York, Viking Press, 1980, p.6

139 J. H. Rush, The Dawn of Life, New York,

Signet, 1962, p 35


EVOLUTION DECEIT - [PDF Document] (275)

140 Roger Lewin, "A Downward Slope to

Greater Diversity", Science , vol. 217,

24.9.1982, p. 1239

141 George P. Stravropoulos, "The Frontiers

and Limits of Science", American Scientist,

vol. 65, November-December 1977, p.674

142 Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View,


143 For further info, see: Stephen C. Meyer,

"The Origin of Life and the Death of Mate-

rialism", The Intercollegiate Review, 32, No.

2, Spring 1996

144 Charles B. Thaxton, Walter L. Bradley &

Roger L. Olsen, The Mystery of Life's Ori-

gin: Reassessing Current Theories, 4. edition,

Dallas, 1992. chapter 9, p. 134

145 Ilya Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers, Order

Out of Chaos, New York, Bantam Books,

1984, p. 175

146 Robert Shapiro, Origins: A Sceptics Guide to

the Creation of Life on Earth, Summit Books,

New York: 1986, s. 207

147 Pierre-P Grassé, Evolution of Living Organ-

isms, New York: Academic Press, 1977, p.


148 Ibid, p. 107.

149 Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried: An Ap-

peal to Reason, Boston: Gambit, 1971, p. 101.

150 Malcolm Muggeridge, The End of Christen-

dom, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980, sp. 43.

151 Loren C. Eiseley, The Immense Journey, Vin-

tage Books, 1958, p. 186.

152 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A

Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard Uni-

versity Press, 1964, p. 184.

153 Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried: An Ap-

peal to Reason, Harvard Common Press,

New York: 1971, p. 33.

154 Ibid, p. 36.

155 Loren Eiseley, The Immense Journey, Vin-

tage Books, 1958. p. 227.

156 Dr. Lee Spetner, "Lee Spetner/Edward

Max Dialogue: Continuing an exchange

with Dr. Edward E. Max", 2001,


157 Ibid.

158 Ibid.

159 Francisco J. Ayala, "The Mechanisms of

Evolution", Scientific American, Vol. 239,

September 1978, p. 64.

160 Dr. Lee Spetner, "Lee Spetner/Edward Max

Dialogue: Continuing an exchange with Dr.

Edward E. Max", 2001, http://www.trueo-


161 S. R. Scadding, "Do 'Vestigial Organs' Pro-

vide Evidence for Evolution?", Evolution-

ary Theory, Vol 5, May 1981, p. 173.

162 The Merck Manual of Medical Information,

Home edition, New Jersey: Merck & Co.,

Inc. The Merck Publishing Group, Rah-

way, 1997.

163 H. Enoch, Creation and Evolution, New

York: 1966, p. 18-19.

164 Frank Salisbury, "Doubts About the Mod-

ern Synthetic Theory of Evolution",

American Biology Teacher, September 1971,

p. 338.

165 Dean Kenyon & Percival Davis, Of Pandas

and People: The Central Question of Biological

Origins, (Dallas: Haughton Publishing,

1993), p. 33

166 Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Cri-

sis, London, Burnett Books, 1985, p. 145.

167 William Fix, The Bone Peddlers: Selling Evo-

lution (New York: Macmillan Publishing

Co., 1984), p. 189


EVOLUTION DECEIT - [PDF Document] (276)

168 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited,

Thomas Nelson Co., Nashville: 1991, pp.

98-99; Percival Davis, Dean Kenyon, Of

Pandas and People, Haughton Publishing

Co., 1990, pp. 35-38.

169 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited,

pp. 98-99, 199-202.

170 Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in

Crisis, London: Burnett Books, 1985, pp.


171 Hervé Philippe and Patrick Forterre, "The

Rooting of the Universal Tree of Life is

Not Reliable", Journal of Molecular Evolu-

tion, vol 49, 1999, p. 510

172 James Lake, Ravi Jain ve Maria Rivera,

"Mix and Match in the Tree of Life", Sci-

ence, vol. 283, 1999, p. 2027

173 Carl Woese, "The Universel Ancestor",

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sci-

ences, USA, 95, (1998) p. 6854

174 Ibid.

175 Jonathan Wells, Icons of Evolution, Regnery

Publishing, 2000, p. 51

176 G. G. Simpson, W. Beck, An Introduction to

Biology, New York, Harcourt Brace and

World, 1965, p. 241.

177 Keith S. Thompson, "Ontogeny and Phy-

logeny Recapitulated", American Scientist,

Vol 76, May/June 1988, p. 273.

178 Francis Hitching, The Neck of the Giraffe:

Where Darwin Went Wrong, New York: Tic-

knor and Fields 1982, p. 204.

179 Richard Lewontin, "The Demon-Haunted

World", The New York Review of Books, Jan-

uary 9, 1997, p. 28.

180 Robert Shapiro, Origins: A Sceptics Guide to

the Creation of Life on Earth, Summit Books,

New York: 1986, p. 207.

181 Hoimar Von Dithfurt, Im Anfang War Der

Wasserstoff (Secret Night of the Dinosaurs),

Vol 2, p. 64.

182 Ali Demirsoy, Kal›t›m ve Evrim (Inheritance

and Evolution), Ankara: Meteksan Publish-

ing Co., 1984, p. 61.

183 Ibid, p. 61.

184 Ibid, p. 94.

185 Bilim ve Teknik, July 1989, Vol. 22, No.260,


186 Grzimeks Tierleben Vögel 3, Deutscher

Taschen Buch Verlag, Oktober 1993, p.92

187 David Attenborough, Life On Earth: A Nat-

ural History, Collins British Broadcasting

Corporation, June 1979, p.236

188 David Attenborough, Life On Earth: A Nat-

ural History, Collins British Broadcasting

Corporation, June 1979, p.240

189 "The Structure and Properties of Spider

Silk", Endeavour, January 1986, vol. 10,


190 Görsel Bilim ve Teknik Ansiklopedisi, pp.185-


191 WalterMetzner, http://cnas.ucr.edu/

~bio/ faculty/Metzner.html

192 National Geographic, September 1995, p.98

193 Bilim ve Teknik, January 1990, pp.10-12

194 David Attenborough, Life of Birds, Prince-

ton Universitye Press, Princeton-New Jer-

sey, 1998, p.47

195 James L.Gould, Carol Grant Gould, Life at

the Edge, W.H.Freeman and Company,

1989, pp.130-136

196 David Attenborough, The Private Life of

Plants , Princeton Universitye Press,

Princeton-New Jersey, 1995, pp.81-83

197 Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians,

Published in the United States by Acade-


EVOLUTION DECEIT - [PDF Document] (277)

mic Press, A Division of Harcourt Brace

and Company, p.35

198 Frederick Vester, Denken, Lernen, Vergessen,

vga, 1978, p.6

199 George Politzer, Principes Fondamentaux de

Philosophie, Editions Sociales, Paris 1954,


200 R.L.Gregory, Eye and Brain: The Psychology

of Seeing, Oxford University Press Inc.

New York, 1990, p.9

201 Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr.Ein-

stein, William Sloane Associate, New York,

1948, p.20

202 Orhan Hançerlio¤lu, Düflünce Tarihi (The

History of Thought), Istanbul: Remzi Book-

store, 6.ed., September 1995, p.447

203 V.I.Lenin, Materialism and Empirio-

criticism, Progress Publishers, Moscow,

1970, p.14

204 Bertrand Russell, ABC of Relativity, George

Allen and Unwin, London, 1964, pp.161-


205 R.L.Gregory, Eye and Brain: The Psychology

of Seeing, Oxford University Press Inc.

New York, 1990, p.9

206 Ken Wilber, Holographic Paradigm and

Other Paradoxes, p.20

207 George Politzer, Principes Fondamentaux de

Philosophie, Editions Sociales, Paris 1954,


208 Orhan Hançerlio¤lu, Düflünce Tarihi (The

History of Thought), Istanbul: Remzi Book-

store, 6.ed., September 1995, p.261

209 George Politzer, Principes Fondamentaux de

Philosophie, Editions Sociales, Paris 1954,


210 Paul Davies, Tanr› ve Yeni Fizik, (God and

The New Physics), translated by Murat

Temelli, Im Publishing, Istanbul 1995,


211 Rennan Pekünlü, "Aldatmacan›n Evrimsi-

zli¤i", (Non-Evolution of Deceit), Bilim ve

Ütopya, December 1998 (V.I.Lenin, Materi-

alism and Empirio-criticism, Progress Pub-

lishers, Moscow, 1970, pp.334-335)

212 Alaettin fienel, "Evrim Aldatmacas› m›?,

Devrin Aldatmacas› m›?", (Evolution De-

ceit or Deceit of the Epoch?), Bilim ve

Ütopya, December 1998

213 Imam Rabbani Hz. Mektuplar› (Letters of

Rabbani), Vol.II, 357, Letter, p.163

214 Imam Rabbani Hz. Mektuplar› (Letters of

Rabbani), Vol.II, 470, Letter, p.1432

215 François Jacob, Le Jeu des Possibles, Univer-

sity of Washington Press, 1982, p.111

216 Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr.Ein-

stein, William Sloane Associate, New York,

1948, pp. 52-53

217 Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr.Ein-

stein, William Sloane Associate, New York,

1948, p.17

218 Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr.Ein-

stein, William Sloane Associate, New York,

1948, p.58.

219 Paul Strathern, The Big Idea: Einstein and

Relativity, Arrow Books, 1997, p. 57

220 Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr.Ein-

stein, William Sloane Associate, New York,

1948, p.84

221 Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr.Ein-

stein, William Sloane Associate, New York,

1948, pp.17-18


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